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Success in the global war against terrorism depends on the actions of a powerful coalition of
nations maintaining a united front against terror. Over 170 nations continue to participate in
the war on terrorism by taking terrorists into custody, freezing terrorist assets and providing
military forces and other support. International organizations are becoming more agile,
adapting their structures to meet changing threats. We support the actions of our partners as
they facilitate international, regional, and local solutions to the challenge of terrorism.
Global Efforts to Fight Terrorism
- On September 11, 2001, only two nations had adhered to all 12 international anti-terrorism
conventions and protocols. Now more than 30 nations belong to all 12, and many more
have become parties to most of the conventions and protocols and have passed
implementing legislation to put them into effect.
- The United Nations Security Council, through its Counterterrorism Committee (CTC), has
taken on a new, important role under Resolution 1373 as the coordinator of UN member
states in efforts to raise the global level of counterterrorism capability, cooperation and
- On June 26, 2002, President Bush secured agreement on a U.S.-sponsored plan for G-8
action on transport security. The G-8 committed to accelerated action on pre-screening
people and cargo, increasing security on ships, planes and trucks, and enhancing security in
airports and seaports. The G-8 initiative also enhances transport security through better
intelligence, coordinated national efforts, and international cooperation against terrorist
- At the 2003 G-8 Summit in Evian, leaders established a Counterterrorism Action Group
(CTAG) of donor countries to expand and coordinate training and assistance for countries
with the will, but not the capacity, to combat terror, focusing on critical areas such as
terrorist financing, customs and immigration controls, illegal arms trafficking, and police
and law enforcement.
- On June 2, 2003, President Bush agreed with other G-8 Leaders at the Evian Summit to a
series of controls on Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), surface-to-air
missile systems designed to be carried and fired by individuals, which are a major threat to
civil aviation. Additionally, the Department of State is working to strengthen the 2000
Wassenaar Arrangement guidelines on these shoulder-launched missile systems and is
providing bilateral assistance to help eliminate at-risk stockpiles and improve security of
national inventories of these weapons.
- The G-8 Leaders took significant steps to expand international cooperation on projects to
prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the first year of the Global
Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction launched by
leaders in June 2002. The Partnership has been broadened to include Finland, the
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland. The G-8 also launched an
initiative to improve the security of radioactive sources and prevent their use by terrorists in
so-called dirty bombs.
- On May 31, 2003, the President announced the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI),
designed to combat the trade in weapons of mass destruction, their delivery systems, and
related materials to and from states and non-state actors of proliferation concern. This
proliferation, together with terrorism, constitutes the greatest threat to international security.
On September 4, 2003, Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland,
Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom joined the United States in announcing the PSI
Statement of Interdiction Principles, consistent with national legal authorities and
international law and frameworks.
- The International Atomic Energy Agencys (IAEA) Nuclear Security Action Plan provides
advice, training and equipment to its 136 Member States to combat nuclear terrorism. The
United States has contributed $15.9 million since the Action Plans inception in March
2002. The IAEA coordinates its nuclear security activities with the United States and other
donor states to mutually reinforce our nuclear security goals.
- International arms export control regimes Australia Group for chemical/biological
weapons, Wassenaar Arrangement, Missile Technology Control Regime and Nuclear
Suppliers Group have added to their guidelines the need to prevent acquisition of
controlled items by terrorists, and are in the process of adopting other measures to achieve
- The Radiological Threat Reduction program identifies and pursues actions that can be taken
to reduce the threat of a radiological attack against the United States. Working with the
International Atomic Energy Agency, this program aims to assist countries that are
technically or financially unable to secure high-risk orphan or surplus sources.
- The Department of Defense established the Regional Defense Counterterrorism Fellowship
Program, funded at $20 million per year, to provide coalition counterparts with the training
and education necessary to establish and maintain effective counterterrorism programs in
their home countries.
- The Department of States Foreign Military Financing (FMF) program, which focuses on
military professionalism and the equipping of often beleaguered armed forces throughout the
world, is providing a direct infusion of badly needed resources used to combat terrorism.
Regional Efforts to Fight Terrorism
- On June 26, 2003, the President announced a $100 million Eastern Africa Counterterrorism
Initiative to expand and accelerate counterterrorism efforts with Kenya, Ethiopia, Djibouti,
Uganda, Tanzania and other countries, as appropriate.
- On October 26, 2002, President Bush obtained agreement for an Asia-Pacific Economic
Cooperation (APEC) Leaders plan on Fighting Terrorism and Promoting Growth that
contains specific commitments to secure key Pacific Rim infrastructure transport, finance,
and communications from exploitation or attack by terrorists.
- The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has endorsed an ambitious transformation
agenda designed to enhance its capabilities by increasing deployment speed and agility to
address new threats of terrorism. Other organizations, including the Organization of
American States (OAS), the European Union (EU), the Organization for Security and
Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), the
Australia, New Zealand, and United States (ANZUS) Treaty members, the APEC forum and
others, took concrete steps to combat terrorism more effectively and to cooperate with each
other in the fight.
- The Department of State initiated a Counterterrorism and Law Enforcement Joint Working
Group with Pakistan and greatly enhanced counterterrorism cooperation with India, Japan
and China. It has also launched an intensive training program for Pakistan counterterrorism
units in Crisis Response Team and investigation techniques.
- Colombia has developed a democratic security strategy as a blueprint for waging an
aggressive campaign against designated foreign terrorist organizations (FTO) such as
FARC, ELN, AUC and other illegal armed groups. U.S. Congressional passage of new
authorities for Colombia, in July 2002, enhanced the flexibility of U.S. security assistance
against illicit drugs and terrorism. We are now noting an elevated rate of desertion from
Colombian FTO ranks, and the AUC declared a ceasefire in December 2002. In July, the
AUC and Government of Colombia agreed to formal peace talks.
- Last year Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and the United States established a regional
counterterrorism mechanism to focus on practical steps to strengthen financial and border
controls, legislation, and enhance law enforcement and intelligence sharing. The
mechanism is built on the framework of the Tripartite Commission of the Triple Frontier,
creating the 3+1 format.
- The Department of State has strengthened its counterterrorism cooperation with Russia
through the bilateral Counterterrorism Working Group, which has held regular sessions in
the United States and Russia, dealing with terrorism issues over most of the world.
- Using a combination of diplomatic encouragement and operational support (including our
Georgia Train and Equip military assistance program), the United States supported
Georgias successful efforts against terrorists in the Pankisi Gorge. These efforts led to
arrests of suspects wanted for terrorist actions in Russia and Western Europe.
Diminishing the Underlying Conditions Terrorists Exploit
Many terrorist organizations exploit to their advantage conditions of poverty, social
disenfranchisement, unresolved political and regional disputes, and weak state structures. The
United States has embarked on a number of initiatives designed to foster broad-based economic
growth and development, open societies to global trade and investment, and promote the health
and education of people worldwide. As more countries become active participants in the global
economy and offer their people the benefits of good governance, economic opportunities, and
health and education, terrorists will be denied both recruits and safe havens.
Global and Regional
- Based on Presidential direction, the United States developed and began implementation of
the Middle East Roadmap to encourage progress towards a long-term resolution to the Arab-
- This spring, the President launched the Middle East Initiative, which contains a number of
economic and trade actions, including a proposed Middle East Free Trade Agreement, to
reduce economic disparities that fuel discontent, anti-American violence and terrorism.
- In February 2002, and again in September 2002, President Bush committed additional U.S.
assistance to Pakistani President Musharraf. This included $2 million in democracy
assistance for technical support, including training of election commissioners, observers and
political party monitors for the October 2002 Legislative Elections; a multi-year $100
million educational support program; Department of Labor grants to combat child labor and
provide vocational training; initiation of discussions on expanded cooperation in science and
technology; and creation of a Joint Economic Forum to expand cooperation. During
President Musharrafs June 2003 Camp David meeting, President Bush announced the
Administration would work with Congress to provide Pakistan with a comprehensive $3
billion five-year assistance package to bolster Pakistans counterterrorism capabilities and
alleviate poverty conditions on which terrorists strive.
- In March 2002, the President launched the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) initiative,
a 50 percent increase in official U.S. development assistance over three years, and a
challenge to donors worldwide to increase the effectiveness of their foreign aid. The MCA
will channel its funds only to developing countries that demonstrate a strong commitment to
ruling justly, investing in their people, and encouraging economic freedom. The focus of
this assistance is to significantly increase the sustained long-term growth rates of recipient
countries and create models of stability and progress throughout the developing world.
- In December 2002, the Secretary of State inaugurated the Middle East Partnership Initiative
(MEPI), which is comprised of programs to encourage democratic growth in societies that
have been denied it, economic freedom to foster growth and reduce hopelessness and
despair, and high quality, inclusive education to train youth for a global economy.
- In 2002, the United States launched the Trade for African Development and Enterprise
(TRADE) initiative, a multi-year capacity building initiative that will promote regional
integration and cooperation, as well as the Africa Education Initiative to increase access to
quality basic education opportunities on the continent.
- United States continues to provide assistance to the countries of the Andes through the
Andean Regional Initiative, which focuses on building stability and democracy in the region
and providing economic alternatives to illegal drug trafficking and narco-terrorism.
- The United States led the world in providing humanitarian assistance and reconstruction
efforts in Afghanistan. In FY 2002 and 2003, the United States provided over $900 million
annually in aid to Afghanistan. The U.S. Congress passed the Afghanistan Freedom Support
Act, which authorizes $3.47 billion for Afghanistan over fiscal years 2003-2006. In
conjunction with U.S. combat operations to root out remnants of al-Qaida and Taliban
terrorists, the President has announced a doubling of U.S. assistance to Afghanistan to over
$2 billion this year. The Afghans are in the final stages of producing that countrys first
constitution in nearly 40 years. We are working hard with the Government of Afghanistan
to raise additional funds from friendly countries and to provide conditions supportive of
national elections in 2004.
- More than 403,000 metric tons of food have been delivered since operations in Afghanistan
began. The United States is assisting in the repair of more than 4,000 km of roads,
reconstruction of 28 bridges, and rehabilitation of over 6,000 water wells, canals, dams and
water systems. We rebuilt 72 clinics and hospitals as part of a 3-year $133 million health
program and rehabilitated 200 schools. In 2002, over three million students went back to
school (33 percent girls), double the number previously enrolled. The U.S. government has
provided $10 million to rebuild the national radio network.
- The United States is the lead nation for establishing, training, and equipping the new Afghan
National Army, committing over $400 million to this endeavor, and will provide similar
amounts over the next several years. The United States is funding a facility to train police,
judges and prosecutors in modern criminal justice principles and human rights.
In addition to destroying terrorists, our strategy in Iraq the central front for the war on terror
includes helping Iraqis assume responsibility for their own defense and future.
- In the short period of time since April 9, the day the Governing Council of Iraq declared to
be their new independence day, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) has made
progress in the areas of security and political development.
- Judicial systems are beginning to function, recruiting for the New Iraqi Army has begun,
and uncensored radio, TV and print media are proliferating for the first time in decades.
- Currently, one police academy is operating in Baghdad and two others are being repaired
and staffed. Approximately 46,000 Iraqi police are being rehired nationally, and 250 have
completed the Transition and Integration Program. In addition, a civil defense force,
facilities protection service, and Iraqi border guards will be involved in defending the
security of their own nation.
- Universities and primary schools have reopened. CPA is creating a program to employ
300,000 Iraqis in public sector jobs. Local political infrastructures are beginning to emerge
and some small businesses are bustling.
- Over 2,500 tons of pharmaceuticals have been delivered since May 1, 2003, with
distribution throughout the country. Thousands of tons of food are flowing into Iraq weekly,
and extensive projects are underway to increase water supplies and improve sewer systems.
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