Measurement Challenges and Strategies
(June 18, 2003)
II. Key Definitions and Concepts
Common Performance Measurement Issues
Topics for Further Discussion
This document provides practical strategies for addressing common performance
measurement challenges. It grew out of the workshop on performance measurement
organized by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the Council for
Excellence in Government which was held on April 22, 2003.
The document is meant to complement the Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART)
guidance document (www.omb.gov/PART), which
also addresses performance measurement. Following this introduction, Section
II discusses basic performance measurement definitions and concepts. Section
III then discusses six common performance measurement problems that were
the subject of break-out sections at the workshop.
Many of the performance measurement issues that Federal program managers
face are extremely difficult, and this document offers no easy solutions.
Rather, this paper suggests some potentially useful strategies for addressing
these issues. Suggestions on additional challenges, strategies, and examples
are welcome, so that this document can evolve. Suggestions may be sent to
to any member of OMB’s Performance Evaluation Team.
Performance measurement indicates what a program is accomplishing and whether
results are being achieved. It helps managers by providing them information
on how resources and efforts should be allocated to ensure effectiveness.
It keeps program partners focused on the key goals of a program. And, it
supports development and justification of budget proposals by indicating
how taxpayers and others benefit.
However, information provided by performance measurement is just part of
the information that managers and policy officials need to make decisions.
Performance measurement must often be coupled with evaluation data to increase
our understanding of why results occur and what value a program adds. Performance
measurement cannot replace data on program costs, political judgments about
priorities, creativity about solutions, or common sense. A major purpose
of performance measurement is to raise fundamental questions; the measures
seldom, by themselves, provide definitive answers.
Because performance measurement keeps a focus on results, it has been a
central aspect both of the Government Results and Performance Act (GPRA)
and of the PART. One goal of the PART is to try to ensure that the most
relevant performance information is readily accessible to policy makers.
The PART seeks to answer whether a program is demonstrating value to the
taxpayer. In doing so, the PART sets a standard for performance information
that is high but also basic and compelling. Ideally, it seeks to demonstrate
that a program 1) has a track record of results and 2) warrants continued
or additional resources.
We are far from having the data and ability to do such analysis on the full
range of Federal programs. But, the identification of adequate performance
measures is a necessary step in integrating performance information and
II. Key Definitions and Concepts
1. Definitions used in the PART
Strategic goals are statements of purpose or mission that
agencies may include in a strategic plan. Strategic goals might not be easily
measurable. For example, a strategic goal for a weather program might be
protecting life and property, and promoting commerce and the quality of
life, through accurate forecasts. To the greatest extent reasonable, the
PART encourages agencies to use their strategic goals to develop specific,
operational performance goals.
Performance goals are the target levels of performance
expressed as a measurable objective, against which actual achievement can
be compared. Performance goals can be stated as either outcomes
or outputs, but to be complete they should incorporate
targets and timeframes into a performance measure.
measures are the indicators or metrics that are used to gauge
program performance. Performance measures can be either outcome or output
measures. Using again the example of a weather program, a measure might
be average advance warning time for tornadoes. Performance measures
correspond with questions 2.1 and 2.3 in the PART.
are the quantifiable or otherwise measurable characteristics that tell
how well a program must accomplish a performance measure. The target
for tornado warning time, for example, might be an average of 20 minutes
by the year 2008. Targets correspond with questions 2.2 and 2.4 in the
In summary, together with the performance measure, the targets and timeframes
establish a performance goal. For the weather program example, the performance
goal would be an average tornado warning time of 20 minutes by 2008.
The PART requires two types of performance goals:
long-term performance goals
address performance that is generally several years or more in the future.
There are two basic types of long-term goals: 1) an annual performance
goal in the future, (e.g., tornado warning times in 2008, or unit costs
of an activity in 2010); and 2) the cumulative effect of annual activities
(e.g., development of an AIDS vaccine by 2010). Long-term program goals
are required under both GPRA (termed “general goals”) and
the PART (questions 2.1 and 2.2).
annual performance goals
should be stated in yearly increments (questions 2.3 and 2.4). For the
weather program example, an annual performance goal might include the
same performance measure (advance warning time), but a less ambitious
target (e.g., 15 minutes average warning time in 2005) due to less widespread
use of advanced technologies.
2. Outcomes, Outputs, and Inputs
Outcomes describe the intended result or consequence that
will occur from carrying out a program or activity. Outcomes are of direct
importance to beneficiaries and the public generally. While performance
measures should distinguish between outcomes and outputs, there should be
a logical connection between them, with outputs supporting outcomes in a
logical fashion. The PART strongly encourages the use of outcomes because
they are much more meaningful to the public than outputs, which tend to
be more process-oriented or means to an end. Outcomes may relate to society
as a whole or to the specific beneficiaries of programs, depending on the
size and reach of the program.
Example (see 2004 PART for Maternal and Child Health
Block Grants (MCHBG)):
Long-term measure: National rate of maternal deaths
per 100,000 live births in 2008.
Annual measure: National rate of illnesses and complications
due to pregnancy per 100 deliveries in 2004.
It is sometimes not possible to measure outcomes annually. In these cases,
it is likely that output goals will be used for annual measurement.
Example: An outcome goal for a space program
might be to determine whether there is life on Mars by 2011; annual goals,
however, might relate to accomplishing steps toward developing the exploration
vehicle and systems.
Outputs are the goods and services produced by a program
or organization and provided to the public or others. They include a description
of the characteristics and attributes (e.g., timeliness) established as
(see 2004 MCHBG PART):
Number of Medicaid-eligible children who receive MCHBG services.
Managers are more likely to manage against outputs rather than outcomes.
This is because output data is collected and reported more frequently, and
outputs more typically correspond to activities and functions being directly
controlled, as opposed to focusing on results. Nevertheless, outputs should
help track a program’s progress toward reaching its outcomes.
Outputs can include process measures (e.g., paper flow, adjudication), attribute
measures (e.g., timeliness, accuracy, customer satisfaction), and measures
of efficiency. They may be measured either as the total quantity of a good
or service produced, or may be limited to those goods or services having
certain attributes (e.g., number of timely and accurate benefit payments).
Typically, outputs are measured at least annually.
Inputs are resources, often measured in dollars, used to
produce outputs and outcomes. Performance measures may include consideration
of inputs, particularly in the context of cost-efficiency or unit costs.
Programs are encouraged to consider the most meaningful level of such input
measures. For example, cost-efficiency measures based on outputs per dollar
will typically be more useful than measures of output per unit of personnel
(such as Full Time Equivalents). Similarly, social costs may be more meaningful
than Federal budget costs when evaluating effectiveness of regulatory programs.
Inputs from State and local partners may be relevant in assessing the effectiveness
of some programs matched by Federal assistance.
3. Characteristics of good performance goals
The key to assessing program effectiveness is measuring the right things.
Performance measures should capture the most important aspects of a program’s
mission and priorities. Appropriate performance goals should: 1) include
both performance measures and targets; 2) focus on outcomes, but use outputs
when necessary; and 3) include both annual and long-term measures and targets.
Characteristics of good performance goals include:
Quality over quantity. Performance goals should be relevant to the core
mission of the program and to the result the program is intended to
achieve. This generally argues for quality over quantity, with a focus
on a few good measures. However, programs should not feel compelled
to collapse complex activities to a single measure, particularly if
that measure is a proxy for the true objective.
Importance to budget decisions. Performance goals included in the PART
should provide information that helps make budget decisions. Agencies
can maintain additional performance goals to improve the management
of the program, but they do not need to be included in the PART.
Public clarity. Performance goals should be understandable to the users
of what is being measured. Publicize (internally and externally) what
you are measuring. This also helps program partners understand what
is expected from the program.
Feasibility. Performance goals should be feasible, but not the path
of least resistance. Choose performance goals based on the relevancy
of the outcomes and not for other reasons -- not because you have good
data on a less relevant measure, for example. If necessary, terminate
less useful data collections to help fund more useful ones.
Collaboration. Agencies and their partners (e.g., States, contractors)
need to work together and not worry about “turf” –
the outcome is what is important.
4. Getting Started
Defining the right performance measures can sometimes be like talking to
a four-year-old child – whatever you say, the response is always “Why?
Why? Why?” Similarly, getting to a good measure can often grow out
of asking why a certain activity, input, or output is important and what
it is really trying to achieve that matters to the public. This kind of
drilling down to get to the right outcome measure might look like this for
a job training program:
Example: Possible Measures for
Job Training Programs
o Dollars appropriated to the program
o Number and size of grants
do these matter? What do they buy?
Funding (Federal and perhaps State and local)
of classes attended by program participants
o Number of people trained
do these matter? What result do they produce?
Products (e.g., classes taught, service delivered, participants
Number of people with useful skills
o Number of people who get a job after leaving the program
Why do these matter? Is this the result the public is seeking?
(e.g., new knowledge, increased skills, changed behavior)
Number of program participants who remain employed for a specified
time and increase their earnings
of people who are self-sufficient
Considering the scope of a program is also key to identifying proper performance
measures. For example, output goals were used in the 2004 PART for the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Fish Hatchery System (NFHS) because
of the difficulties in attributing success in achieving species conservation
goals – a higher level outcome – based solely on propagation
of hatchery fish. Success at the outcome goal of species conservation would
be better assessed by considering a broader scope, such as the USFWS Fisheries
Program, which includes both the hatchery (NFHS) and habitat improvement
aspects of species conservation. In addition, while external factors such
as other stakeholders’ actions and drought also affect species conservation,
the Fisheries Program can take these into account as it develops its goals
and carries out its activities.
Common Performance Measurement Issues
Based on the April 22nd workshop and follow-up discussions, this portion
of the document outlines six common performance measurement issues and offers
possible strategies for addressing them. The issues address programs that:
1) have outcomes that are extremely difficult to measure; 2) are among many
contributors to a desired outcome; 3) have results that will not be achieved
for many years; 4) relate to deterrence or prevention of specific behaviors;
5) have multiple purposes and funding that can be used for a range of activities;
and 6) are administrative or process oriented.
Whenever possible, the document provides examples of performance goals and
2004 PARTs that effectively address the problem at hand. All PART summaries
and the completed PART worksheets can be found at /omb/budget/fy2004/pma.html.
The program’s outcomes are extremely difficult to measure
Some programs’ outcomes are inherently difficult to measure. For example,
programs designed to address foreign policy objectives might fall into this
category. By focusing on why a program is important and what makes it difficult
to measure, the scope of the problem can sometimes be more specifically
defined. Going through this process may also identify the root of the ‘difficult
to measure’ problem as one of the other core problems identified in
Performance measure challenges can often be traced back to fundamental questions
about the program, which when reexamined may yield insights into better
ways to assess effectiveness. As mentioned earlier, one way to reexamine
those issues is to relentlessly ask “why?”
- Why it
is important that the program receive funding?
- Why are
program operations important?
- Why does
the program do what it does?
- If the
program were fabulously successful, what problem would it solve?
- How would
This line of questioning should help clarify the program’s true purpose
and what its desired outcome is, which should help determine what really
needs to be measured. For example, a program’s purpose may be to support
an international coalition. In trying to define a performance measure, it
might be helpful to ask “Why is the success of that coalition important
and what role does the program play in achieving that goal?”
It also can be helpful to identify what core issues make measurement difficult.
- The program
purpose is not clear.
- The beneficiary
or customer is not defined. Consider who are the direct and indirect
beneficiaries. Who are the long- and short-term beneficiaries? If the
government does not do this, who would pay for it?
have a different view of the program than program managers. How would
stakeholders be affected if the program did not exist? Are there performance
measures for stakeholders that shed light on the program’s effectiveness?
programs are difficult to measure because data is not available. To
help address this situation, ask the following questions: Why is data
unavailable? What data is available? Can we fund the cost to find data?
If data is not available, are there proxy measures that will indirectly
measure the program’s outcomes? Do stakeholders have data that
they generate to track the program?
- If quantitative
data is unavailable and inappropriate, consider using qualitative data,
such as assembling a panel of experts on the topic. For example, in
assessing the quality of public defenders’ services, a survey
of judges may be useful, and could complement output measures such as
cost per case.
The program is one of many contributors to the desired outcome
Often several Federal programs, programs from various levels of government
(Federal, State, local), private-sector or non-profit activities, or even
foreign countries all contribute to achieving the same goal. The contribution
of any one Federal program may be relatively small or large. Examples of
programs with these characteristics include international peacekeeping (PKO
2004 PART), special education pre-school grants (IDEA Preschool 2004 PART),
highways (FHWA Highways 2004 PART), Vocational Education (2004 PART), and
many education, labor, and housing formula grant programs.
One approach to this situation is to develop broad, yet measurable, outcome
goals for the collection of programs, while also having program-specific
performance goals. For a collection of programs housed primarily in one
Federal agency, a broad outcome measure may be one of the goals in an agency
strategic plan (e.g., increasing the home ownership rate). The broad outcome
goal can often be tracked using national data that is already being collected,
while the program-specific goals may require more targeted data collection.
Both the broad outcome goal and the program-specific goals could be addressed
in the PART.
Example: Several Federal education programs, totaling
nearly $14 billion, contribute to helping children learn to read. One of
those programs, Reading First State Grants, provides about $1 billion to
help implement proven literacy reforms in schools with low reading scores.
outcome goal: Percentage of children in high-poverty schools reading
proficiently by the end of third grade.
First goal: Percentage of at-risk third graders receiving Reading First
services who can read at or above grade level.
It is important to “right size” the measure to suit the program.
Sometimes a program is such a significant contributor, or leverages so many
dollars, that an appropriate goal is a societal outcome. Other times it
is more appropriate to write measures specific to program beneficiaries.
There is no rule of thumb on where that threshold is. We suggest only that
programs of similar size, or with a similar percentage contribution to the
desired outcome, approach this issue similarly.
Example: Several Federal programs provide student
aid so that low and moderate income students can afford to attend college.
Of these, only the Pell Grant program and the loan programs contribute a
large enough share of student aid to merit a societal outcome. The Pell
Grant program provides grants to nearly one-third of all college students,
while about half of all students receive loans from or backed by the Federal
government. In contrast, the College Work Study program reaches only about
6% of college students, and so the measures relate to the program participants
Pell Grant long-term measure (see 2004 PART): College enrollment gap
between low-income and high-income high school graduates.
Work Study long-term measure: Rate of College Work Study students who
complete their post-secondary education program.
Sometimes programs are designed to work together toward a common goal, but
each provides a different piece of the service or activity. In other cases,
programs are designed to merge funds and support the same activities as
well as goals; this is particularly true when Federal, State, and local
dollars all contribute to reaching a common goal.
When programs fund different activities and do not co-mingle funds,
programs should be able to develop activity-specific performance goals that
support the broader outcome. It is likely, however, that these will be output
goals and the challenge will be agreeing on how each of the separate activities
contributes to the outcome.
When programs co-mingle funds in support of a goal, it
is extremely difficult to assess the marginal impact of the program dollar
since all funding supports similar activities. Programs may seek to claim
responsibility for the entire outcome and output, despite having a shared,
and sometimes small, role in the overall activity. However, we should seek
to evaluate whether such claims are realistic. It may be useful in such
situations to consider measures such as unit costs in terms of output per
Federal dollar spent as well as the output per combined Federal, State and
local dollars spent.
There are three basic sets of questions that one would aim to answer with
is the overall effort working? Are there outcome measures for the overall
effort/program? Are there evaluations?
is the Federal contribution making a difference? Because withholding
funding as an experiment is not a viable option, analysts should consider
whether there are other ways of seeing what would happen in the absence
of Federal funding. Can one compare current funding to an earlier time
when there was no Federal funding? Are there regions of the country
where there is no Federal funding?
how is funding effort shared between Federal and non-Federal partners?
How does the distribution of funding effort compare to measures of need
or the distribution of benefits?
Results will not be achieved for many years
In some cases, the outcome of a program may not be realized for many years.
In some cases, this can be addressed by identifying meaningful output-oriented
milestones that lead to achieving the long-term outcome goal. Many research
and development (R&D) programs, such as Hydrogen Technology (2004 PART)
and Mars Exploration (2004 PART), fall into this category.
To address this issue, a program should define the specific short- and medium-term
steps or milestones to accomplish the long-term outcome goal. These steps
are likely to be output-oriented, prerequisite accomplishments on the path
toward the outcome goal. A road map can identify these interim goals, suggest
how they will be measured, and establish an evaluation schedule to assess
their impact on the long-term goal. It is important that these steps are
meaningful to the program, measurable, and linked to the outcome goal.
Example: The purpose of NASA’s Mars Exploration
program is to explore Mars, focusing on the search for evidence of life.
To that end, NASA defines spacecraft missions, which provide one level of
measures to assess program effectiveness: mission success. Further, within
each Mars mission, the program develops technologies; builds, launches,
and operates robotic spacecraft; and performs research using the spacecraft
instruments. While these steps take many years to complete, they provide
many milestones against which a mission – and the program –
can be monitored. Useful measures could include timeliness in achieving
certain steps as well as percentage cost overruns.
It may also be useful to track process-oriented measures, such as the extent
to which programs make decisions based on competitive review. For example,
research programs can have many uncertainties, including their expected
outcomes. So, while research programs are encouraged to define measures
that can track progress, not all will be able to. Such programs may rely,
in part, on process measures, such as the extent to which the program uses
merit-based competitive review in making awards.
To qualitatively address the research itself, some programs develop measures
to reflect meaningful external validation of the quality and value of the
program’s research. To address the uncertainty of research outcomes,
programs may also be able to demonstrate performance in terms of the broad
portfolio of the efforts within the program. Expert independent evaluators
might also help determine if the process of choosing appropriate long-term
investments is fair, open and promises higher expected payoffs in exchange
for higher levels of risk. Rotating evaluators periodically may help ensure
independence and objectivity.
Another solution is estimation of future results using computer models or
expert panels. EPA uses the former to estimate cancer cases avoided.
The program relates to deterrence or prevention of specific behaviors
Programs with a deterrence or prevention focus can be difficult to measure
for a variety of reasons. Most importantly, deterrence measurement requires
consideration of what would happen in the absence of the deterrence program.
Also, it is often difficult to isolate the impact of the individual program
on behavior that may be affected by multiple other factors.
Sample programs: Coast Guard drug interdiction
(2004 PART), Department of Labor/Office of Federal Contract Compliance (2004
PART), Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Inspection and Performance
If performance measures reflect a continuum from lower-level outputs to
higher-level outcome measures related to the overall strategic goal, it
is important for deterrence programs to choose measures that are far enough
along the continuum that they tie to the ultimate strategic goal as well
as to the program’s activity. This will help ensure that the measures
are both meaningful and genuinely affected by the program. Care should be
taken, as some measures may create perverse incentives if they do not reach
the correct balance between output and outcome (e.g., measures that focus
on enforcement actions, as opposed to crime rates).
Example: A useful measure for the Coast Guard drug
interdiction program could be the total volume of drugs entering the United
States. This measure might be contrasted with drug seizure rates. High drug
seizure rates might suggest that the Coast Guard interdiction strategies
are effective. However, if the amount of drugs being sent rises significantly,
and the number of seizures goes up to a lesser extent, the measure would
still show that the Coast Guard program was effective, even though the volume
of drugs getting through has increased substantially. In contrast, the total
volume of drugs entering the U.S. is tied more closely to the overall strategic
goal of reducing the flow of drugs into the country. On the downside, the
Coast Guard has only partial control over the measure of volume entering
Establishing deterrence targets. For some programs, deterring
a majority of the negative outcome is appropriate. For other programs, most,
if not all, of the negative outcome must be avoided. In principle, the target
for the program should reflect consideration of the maximization of net
benefits (see, for example, OMB guidance on rulemaking under E.O. 12866).
In any event, understanding the costs and benefits of compliance at the
margins will help the program to determine the correct target level for
Example: For programs in which non-compliance is not
life-threatening, and for which compliance is historically low, a legitimate
long-term target may fall short of 100% compliance. In these cases, short-term
targets that demonstrate forward progress toward the acceptable long-range
goal may make sense.
Programs where failure is not an option. For programs where failure to prevent
a negative outcome would be catastrophic (including programs to prevent
terrorism or nuclear accidents), traditional outcome measurement might lead
to an “all-or-nothing” goal. As long as the negative outcome
is prevented, the program might be considered successful, regardless of
the costs incurred in prevention or any close calls experienced that could
have led to a catastrophic failure.
However, proxy measures can be used to determine how well the deterrence
process is functioning. These proxy measures should be closely tied to the
outcome, and the program should be able to demonstrate -- such as through
the use of modeling -- how the proxies tie to the eventual outcome. Because
failure to prevent a negative outcome is catastrophic, it may be necessary
to have a number of proxy measures to help ensure that sufficient safeguards
are in place. Failure in one of the proxy measures would not lead, in itself,
to catastrophic failure of the program as a whole; however, failure in any
one of the safeguards would be indicative of the risk of an overall failure.
Example: Outcome goals for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
of no nuclear reactor accidents, no deaths from acute radiation exposures
from nuclear reactors, no exposure events at reactors, and no radiological
sabotage are not necessarily sufficient to evaluate the program. There have
been no occurrences of the above-mentioned events during the years 1999
to date. Therefore, annual goals used for the program include no more than
one precursor event per year, no statistically significant adverse industry
trends in safety performance, and no overexposures exceeding applicable
regulatory limits. These proxy measures are useful to assess the ongoing
effectiveness of this program.
The program has multiple purposes and funding can be used for a range
Some Federal programs are both large and diverse. They may be designed to
address multiple objectives or support a broad range of activities or both.
Block grant programs often have these characteristics, with the added feature
of allowing grantees the flexibility to set priorities and make spending
choices. Increased flexibility at the local level can limit efforts to set
national goals and standards or create obstacles for ensuring accountability.
In other cases, the program may focus on a limited set of activities which
in turn are used for multiple purposes by many distinct stakeholders. Establishing
performance measures for these types of programs can be challenging.
Sample Programs: Block grants, such as the Community
Development Block Grant program (CDBG), the Social Service Block Grant program
(SSBG), and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).
Establishing performance goals for block grant programs. Some block grant
programs provide resources to non-Federal levels of government to focus
on specific program areas, such as education, job training, or violence
prevention. While the funds can often be used for a variety of activities,
they are for a specific purpose. In these cases, national goals can be articulated
that focus on outcomes to highlight for grantees the ultimate purpose of
program funds. Targets for these measures may be set by surveying grantees
to gauge the expected scale of their work or by looking at historical trend
data. A system could be developed that uses performance measures and national
standards to promote “joint” accountability for results. With
this approach, after agreeing on an appropriate set of performance measures,
program targets can be set at the local level and aggregated up to national
Example: CDBG is a large program with broad objectives.
Seventy percent of CDBG funds are provided by formula to approximately 1,000
“entitlement” jurisdictions. The remaining 30 % of funds are
allocated to States. The broad objectives of the program, coupled with local
flexibility to determine community needs and relatively weak targeting criteria,
have allowed grantees to use CDBG funds for a large range of activities.
Through consultation with grantees and stakeholders, a core list of strategic
objectives can be identified along with illustrative local/State performance
measures. Each grantee could be asked to commit to specific strategic objectives
and a set of procedures that will institutionalize a joint accountability
partnership in each community. These procedures would be used to (1) establish
and approve annual performance targets, (2) collect and verify performance
data, and (3) determine when targets have been achieved. Accountability
would require that results are publicized and assessed. A web-based system
for reporting goals and accomplishments, for instance, could facilitate
The purpose of the program is administrative or process oriented.
Many programs in the government are administrative or process-oriented in
nature which tends to present a number of problems when it comes to measuring
performance. One issue is the appropriate balance between outputs and outcomes.
Realistically, output measures may be useful for evaluating the efficiency
of process oriented activities. In cases such as procurement of computer
systems, for example, the spending may be better evaluated with other capital
asset evaluation tools (such as business cases and Form 300s) than with
the PART. However, for larger administrative efforts, consideration should
still be given to ultimate outcomes. In some cases, it may make most sense
to evaluate the administrative costs as part of the overall program, rather
than as a separate activity. For example, a grant program may contain separate
accounts for the grants themselves and for administrative salaries and expenses,
yet both accounts might be viewed as providing inputs into a single program
Benchmarking with other agencies or the private sector, competitive sourcing,
and the use of intermediate outcomes such as returns on investment are all
approaches that can assist where data availability is an issue. For instance,
GSA developed performance measures for its real property and vehicle acquisition
programs based on private-sector costs.
As many administrative functions run across agencies, the development of
common measures is also encouraged. For instance, the Inspector General
community is working towards common measures to ensure consistency.
Topics for Further Discussion
This is a living document that will be updated periodically to provide new
ideas and to address new issues. To comment on this document or to raise
additional issues for consideration, please send an e-mail to any member
of OMB’s Performance Evaluation Team or email@example.com.