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May 28, 2004 | 5:02 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Justin from Orlando FL:
How do you become an intern to the President of the United States? Or at least work in the White House as an intern?

A:Ann Gray, White House Intern Coordinator:
Approximately 100 interns are chosen to serve in the White House Intern Program for a fall, spring, or summer term. The program is highly competitive. For the Summer, 2004 class, twenty-five White House offices selected interns from almost 1000 applications. A White House Intern must be an American citizen, 18 years of age, and enrolled in school. An excellent candidate should have: a solid academic record, a history of school or community service, consistent internship/work experience, and a demonstrated interest in serving our President in any capacity. Additional information can be found on the White House website /government/wh-intern.html.

May 28, 2004 | 4:51 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Lorie, Wauwatosa, WI:
Lake Michigan is being polluted at a regular rate because Milwaukee County Metro Sewerage is allowing billions of untreated fecal matter, etc. dumped in during/after each rain storm. This must be illegal yet no-one has done anything about this. Working at the Medical College of Wisconsin I have come to realize the danger of human and animal related spores that will continue to produce in the water of Lake Michigan.

I know that our world is plagued with war in Irag but the problem above affects everyone that shares this lake water for regular consumption. Truth being, some of these illness cannot possibly be caught/treated by the water filtration systems.

Can you look into this matter?

A:Jim Connaughton, Chairman of the Council of Environmental Quality:

Thank you for that good question, Lorie. The Bush Administration is implementing a variety of policies and programs to reduce the amount of waste entering our lakes and watersheds, and also clean up what has already crept in

With regard to Lake Michigan and our other Great Lakes, I'd encourage you to take look at the EPA's fact sheet (available at summarizing everything the Administration is doing to clean, protect and restore areas of the Great Lakes Basin. Most recently, President Bush signed an executive order creating a Great Lakes Interagency Task Force that will, in the words of the President, "address environmental and natural resource issues of national concern and better coordinate the region's sustainable development and restoration. It will harness the collective efforts of the Federal government, Governors, Mayors, Members of Congress, tribes, and citizen stewards to ensure that the greatness of the lakes endures for generations." Over the last two years, the Administration has committed over $1.3 billion for interagency programs to improve water quality in the Great Lakes. To learn more, please visit

With specific regard to cutting water pollution from animal waste, the Bush Administration finalized a rule in 2002 that will require all large Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) to obtain permits to ensure they protect America.s waters from wastewater and manure. The rule controls runoff from agricultural feeding operations, preventing billions of pounds of pollutants from entering America.s waters, and applies to about 15,500 livestock operations across the country. In 2002, about 4,500 operations were covered by permits. Because of the new rule, EPA expects that up to 11,000 additional facilities will be required to apply for permits by 2006.

We are also making expanded incentive programs available to farmers in the Great Lakes Basin to address pollution runoff that can get into the lakes, and to restore, improve and protect wetlands and other wildlife habitat. Resources will come from the more than $40 billion available nationwide over the next ten years for conservation programs in the Farm Bill that President Bush signed in 2002.

If you are concerned that your local wastewater treatment facility is not operating properly with respect to human waste, you might bring it to the attention of your local EPA office which oversees these facilities to make certain they are being operated correctly. You are in EPA's Region 5 (

May 27, 2004 | 7:40 a.m.(EDT)

Q: Adam, Salt Lake City:
We all know that the President and his wife live in the White House. I am curious as to where the Vice President and his wife live.

A:Lynne Cheney, Wife of the Vice President:

Thank you for your question, Adam.

The Vice President and I live at "One Observatory Circle" located on the grounds of the United States Naval Observatory, in northwest Washington, DC. The home was first occupied in 1893 by the Observatory's superintendent, Captain Frederick V. McNair, and later became home to chiefs of naval operations (CNO) in 1923.

In 1974, Congress passed a law designating the stately home as the Vice President's Residence. Vice President Walter Mondale and his family became the first vice presidential family to actually move into the home in 1977.

Although our daughters are grown up and have their own homes, Vice President Cheney and I live in the Residence with our two dogs, Dave and Jackson.

For a more comprehensive history, please visit the White House website at /history/life/vpresidence.html, where you can also view historical photos and my online video tour.

May 26, 2004 | 16:22 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Mark, America:
The Bush Regime hates nature. How else to explain the war against our land, water and air? Does anyone there care to explain the totally Orwellian "Healthy Forest" act? To save the village we had to destroy it. Sound familiar?

A:Jim Connaugton, Chairman of the Council of Environmental Quality:

Thank you for the question. You apparently are not aware that the President is an avid outdoorsman and conservationist who enjoys restoring habitat, planting native grasses and reforesting his own land. He also goes fishing, hiking and biking outside as much as his very busy schedule allows.

Congress passed the Healthy Forests legislation by an overwhelming, bipartisan vote of support, including both California senators who understand the danger to communities, wildlife habitat, and air and water quality from catastrophic wildfire. For example, the Biscuit fire in Oregon destroyed 100,000 acres of spotted owl habitat. Smoke from the fires also sent numerous people to hospitals. Interestingly, the majority of the 14 senators voting against the legislation are mainly from the Northeast and do not face the same problem with catastrophic wildfires.

The Healthy Forests Initiative improves the ways our lands are managed. For nearly 100 years, the Federal government had taken the unnatural approach of strict fire suppression, which resulted in dense brush, undergrowth and invasive species which choke off nutrients from old growth trees and create the conditions giving rise to the catastrophic fires we see so frequently now. This phenomenon is more fully explained at a /news/releases/2003/12/20031203-2.html and /infocus/healthyforests/toc.html.

Healthy Forests is based on sound science. Government and academic experts in forestry and fires are responsible for the design and management of the effort. The objective of this effort is to perform responsible thinning projects to return forests to more natural densities so forests can survive and be rejuvenated by natural fire cycles, which also happens to promote faster growth of larger trees. Just last month, the U.S. Forest Service released a study showing that such projects are an effective means to reduce the threat of catastrophic wildfire to communities. The study also showed that these treatments improve and maintain forest health. The report is available at By the way, contrary to the assertions of some critics, the Healthy Forest legislation specifically ensures protection of old growth trees and keeps wilderness areas off limits.

We are happy that you are interested in forest health and hope that you will check out the information to learn even more. Thanks for the question!

May 26, 2004 | 12:43 p.m.(EDT)

Q: 2, 75 Main Street:
Does anyone even read these emails?

A:Jimmy Orr, White House Internet Director:
Yes, “2,” someone does read these emails. You can imagine the number of emails we receive, but every email sent in to White House Interaction is read. I know, because I receive them.

Although we would prefer to answer each of them, we cannot. So, we answer emails which are representative of the thousands which come in. It is our goal to answer more and more of these.

White House Interactive is relatively young. But it is a defining moment on the Internet. Providing a forum in which the public and the White House can interact like this has NEVER happened before. It is important and it is our hope that these type of forums become the norm all across government. The Internet is a powerful communications medium and government needs to better utilize it in that fashion.

And as I mentioned, it is our goal to answer more and more questions. Thanks for yours...

May 25, 2004 | 3:21 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Lonnie from Southfield, MI:
What are we doing to create jobs in the US? Why don't we increase tariffs? I am recently out of work and would appreciate help.

A:Andrew Samwick, Chief Economist, CEA:
Job creation is a principal focus of this Administration. It has worked to create an atmosphere of lower taxes and sensible regulation in which businesses can thrive and create new jobs. An open world trading system is generally a positive contribution to economic prosperity. It increases living standards both at home and abroad. That is the reason the President has actively pursued trade agreements to open up markets abroad.

The President understands that any economic change, including job changes related to international trade, can cause painful dislocations for workers and their families. The Administration is also working to help workers prepare for new jobs and new opportunities in the global economy.

In Southfield, there is a Michigan Works! Service Center where you can receive assistance in finding work in your current field, learn about other job openings in your area, and arrange for additional training. You can reach them at (248) 796-4550. The center in Southfield is just one of many State and Federal Comprehensive One-Stop Centers around the nation. You can find out more about the Federal government's programs to assist displaced workers at the Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration (

May 25, 2004 | 9:57 a.m.(EDT)

Q: Fred, Texas:
Why are the President's speeches not simulcast on the web and why are they not archived in either Realplayer or Windows Media format? I was not able to listen to the speech and would like to hear it.


A:Jimmy Orr, White House Internet Director:
Hi Fred

We try to simulcast the President's speeches on the web whenever we can. There are still some logistical issues with webcasting the President's speeches on the road, but we do so when we can. Last night's speech, for example, was webcast live on our home page. And the archived speech is available by clicking here.

We also heard from visitors who wondered why the text of the speech was not available immediately after it was delivered. It takes awhile for speeches to be transcribed. So, we were able to post the speech at 9:11pm last night which was about 30 minutes after it concluded.

May 21, 2004 | 2:24 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Johannes from Jena, Germany:
Hello! I'm a german Student from Jena, and this semester I'm taking part on a seminar about media in the USA. We read there a newspaper-article about press conferences in the White House. Is it true that the press conferences are planned in advance, so a journalist is only allowed to ask the questions he submited to the White House earlier before the press conference?

Many Thanks in advance and greetings from Germany!

A:White House Press Secretary Scott McClellan:
My job would certainly be much easier if only it were true. I can categorically say it has no basis in fact, but it was one of the more amusing conspiracy theories I have seen during my time at the White House. The White House press corps is represented by a bunch of professional journalists who are working hard to keep the American people informed about the decisions we make here in Washington. Part of their job is to ask the tough questions, but I can never foresee a day when they would ever submit those to us in advance.

May 21, 2004 | 12:10 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Paul from Rochester, NY:
Has George Bush ever been in Rochester?

A:Melissa Bennett, Special Assistant to the President and Director for Appointments and Scheduling:
The President has been to Rochester, Michigan and Rochester, Minnesota, but hasn't been to Rochester, New York yet. In April, he was near by in Buffalo, New York talking about the USA Patriot Act. He has also traveled to Wilmington, West Point, Fort Drum, Bay Shore, East Meadow and New York City. The President loves to travel and meet citizens from all over the country. I hope someday he will be speaking near your home in Rochester, New York too.

May 19, 2004 | 5:01 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Ivan from Tallahassee, Florida:
Getting more people on the information superhighway is a useful endeavor. One proposed means is to have "broadband over power lines," known as "BPL." This system uses electrical power lines like ones you see outside your house and up on a utility pole to carry data transmissions.

The idea for sending data signals over power lines is seriously and fundamentally flawed. Why adjust technical standards to accommodate a seriously flawed idea?

A:Richard Russell, White House Senior Director for Technology:
President Bush has set an aggressive goal for all Americans to have access to broadband by 2007. One way for us to meet that goal is to encourage new technologies such as Broadband Over Powerlines, or BPL. As with most new technologies, BPL has issues that need to be addressed. BPL presents the possibility of interference to certain radio systems. That is why technical standards are necessary to enable BPL to operate while protecting existing radio systems.

To that end, the Department of Commerce's National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) has just completed a comprehensive study of the interference risks associated with BPL. Significantly, there are more than 59,000 federal radio systems in the bands to be used by BPL so the government has a vested interest in ensuring that these systems are protected from harmful interference. The NTIA study was a real world analysis of BPL systems, and included 10 million measurements of operating BPL facilities. Based on this study, NTIA has concluded that while there is a risk of interference, there are also reasonable technical solutions that can be employed to ensure that existing radio systems are protected. By protecting these systems, BPL will be able to realize its potential of being the "third broadband wire" into the home and accelerate the deployment of affordable broadband to all Americans.

If you'd like more information on the NTIA study it is available on the web at

May 19, 2004 | 1:58 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Jim from Evanston, Illinois:
Is the University of Denver hockey team there today? Will you publish a picture of the President and the team? Both NSA Rice and Interior Sec. Norton went to DU. Will they be there?

A:Jimmy Orr, White House Internet Director:
The University of Denver hockey team is here today. The President is congratulating four NCAA teams for winning national titles. The President will congratulate the University of Connecticut men's and women's basketball teams, the University of Denver men's hockey team, and the University of Minnesota women's hockey team.

We will post photos of these events and we'll have to see if Dr. Rice and Secretary Norton attend.

May 18, 2004 | 2:37 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Carl from Fort Collins Colorado
During the recent 9/11 commision meetings no audio or video recordings were made, while during Condoleeza's testimony for example the entire thing was broadcast on television, why is the administration being so secretive about this?

A:Jim Wilkinson, Deputy National Security Advisor for Communications:
The Administration has been extremely cooperative with the September 11 Commission, including allowing unprecedented access to documents and interviews and meetings with Administration officials -- including the President and Vice President. Dr. Rice's testimony was public because the Administration wanted to work with the Commission to help give the public access to as much as possible. As for other September 11 Commission meetings, I would refer you to the Commission.

May 14, 2004 | 6:32 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Ross from Lincoln, Nebraska:
Did you ever take a photo that you didn't think would turn out well -- but when it was developed you really liked it?

A:Eric Draper, White House Photo Director:
A fraction of a second can make the difference between a good photo and a bad one. In this case, timing and a little bit of luck helped me to compose this image of Marine One flying over the heads of French fire and emergency personnel as the President departed Evian, France following last year's G-8 Summit. I didn't know exactly what I was going to get but I took a chance and I was pleasantly surprised when I looked at my film.

May 13, 2004 | 1:21 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Bruce from Honeoye Falls, NY :
I am very happy that the President supports reducing the sulfur in diesel emmisions. I understand that it will apply to off-road vehicles and eventually to marine and train use. Is he also planning ahead for regulations regarding diesel emmisions from cars? While very few Americans drive diesel cars now, it is anticipated that they will increase with the higher cost of fuel. Congratulations on this groundbreaking and environmentally friendly policy!

A:Jim Connaughton, Chairman, Council of Environmental Quality:
Thank you for your inquiry. Indeed, the President's nonroad diesel announcement is ground-breaking. As Administrator Leavitt said, "We are going to make that burst of black smoke that erupts from diesels a thing of the past." For more information on the complete suite of diesel regulations, please click here (

In addition, the Bush Administration is addressing emissions from all cars.

EPA's Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program, which we are currently implementing, affects every new passenger vehicle and every gallon of gasoline sold in our country. In addition, through EPA's Clean Diesel Trucks and Buses program, we are dramatically reducing the level of sulfur in highway diesel fuel as well.

Under these programs, for the first time:

SUVs, pick-up trucks, vans, and the largest personal vehicles are subject to the same national emission standards as cars.

Vehicles and the fuels they use are treated as one system. Cleaner vehicles will have the low-sulfur gasoline or diesel fuels they need to run their cleanest.

These programs will result in cars, SUVs, pick-ups, and vans that are 77-95 percent cleaner than today's cars and trucks, and will also result in cleaner-burning gasoline and diesel fuel that contains 90+ percent less sulfur.

Cleaner cars that run on cleaner fuels result in cleaner air, and better health for all Americans.

May 12, 2004 | 11:41 a.m.(EDT)

Q: Doug from Redlands, CA:
After careful study and research, the Patriot Act allows the government to monitor and watch almost every aspect of our lives. Almost like "Big Brother". With this legislation, is your every day American losing Constitutional freedoms?

A:Ed McNally, Senior Associate Counsel and HSC General Counsel:

Doug --

Thank you for your question about the USA Patriot Act. The President is committed to protecting the rights, the liberties and the security of everyone in America.

The President signed the Patriot Act into law in the aftermath of the September 11th attacks. Thanks to the President.s decisive leadership in the war on terrorism, the Patriot Act has played a key role in a number of successful operations to protect innocent Americans from terrorists. In passing the Patriot Act by an overwhelmingly favorable margin (the vote was 98 to 1 in the Senate), Congress provided for modest, incremental changes in the law. Congress took existing legal principles and adapted them to preserve the lives and liberty of the American people given the challenges posed by global terrorist threats. These changes have enabled the Federal Government to better track terrorists, disrupt their cells, seize their assets, and share more information with state and local law enforcement.

The short answer to your question is no - ordinary Americans are not losing their constitutional freedoms. To the contrary, the Patriot Act represents another important step in the government's fulfillment of its constitutional obligation to "provide for the common defense" of Americans against terrorist or other attacks. The Patriot Act is constitutionally sound, and has not been used to violate the rights of Americans. Consider, for example, the Washington Post's account concerning the remarks of one of your home state Senators -- U.S. Senator Diane Feinstein (D-Calif), that she made on this issue at a hearing last fall. The Post reported that although her office received 21,434 letters opposing the Act, none of those letters contained any alleged abuses of the Patriot Act. The Senator said: "I have never had a single abuse of the Patriot Act reported to me." When she asked the ACLU for examples of alleged violations of civil liberties under the Act, Senator Feinstein reported that the ACLU "had none." Source: Washington Post, 10/22/03

Similarly, this is what Senator Charles Schumer (D-NY) had to say about the Patriot Act:

"If there is one key word that underscores this bill, it is 'balance.' . . . The balance between the need to update our laws given the new challenges and the need to maintain our basic freedoms which distinguish us from our enemies is real." Source: Congressional Record, October 25, 2001

If you would like more information about the role of the USA PATRIOT Act in protecting Americans in the war on terror, please visit the U.S. Department of Justice website at

-- Edward McNally

May 11, 2004 | 12:27 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Jennifer from Williamsburg, VA:
I understand that the President has taken some serious criticism of the No Child Left Behind Legislation. As a teacher I am starting to see the effects of it. I graduated with a Master's Degree in May and hold a teaching certificate to teach Social Studies, English and General Science, but have been unable to find a job. Many of my fellow graduates are in the same situation. We have been told that we do not qualify as highly qualified under the NCLB and until we do school districts will not even consider us. Many have left the teaching profession and the myth of the teacher shortage for employment in other fields. What is the truth about the so called teacher shortage? How is the President going to address the large numbers of new teaching graduates who can not find jobs?

A:Margaret Spellings, Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy:
Jennifer, thanks for writing and congratulations on completing your education. It is true that the No Child Left Behind Act requires that teachers be "highly qualified".

Each state determines exactly what is considered to be "highly qualified" but it must include content mastery in the subject to be taught. You should check with your state certification board to see what your state requires. There is no specific federal mandate in this area.

In addition, many states provide for alternative certification programs and some of these programs are operated by school districts, particularly in urban centers. Alternative certification may provide a way to meet your states "highly qualified" definition and get into the classroom more quickly.

Finally, I would suggest that your teacher preparation program should work closely with state certification processes to make sure that students who are graduating are on course to meet the state requirements.

As for the issue of teacher shortages -- most of these shortages are in the subjects of math, science and special education -- particularly at the middle and high school levels. Thanks for writing and for your commitment to teaching.

May 11, 2004 | 12:00 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Carol from Schodack, NY:
Will this interactive program continue to be operational in the fall? I would like to assign a group project to my Political Science class that would involve submitting a question to White House staff. Thanks for this opportunity!

A:Jimmy Orr, White House Internet Director:
Thanks Carol

We have all intentions of keeping this part of the site very active. We've seen through the success of "Ask the White House" that interactivity between the White House and citizens is what people want. We look at "White House Interactive" as kind of a mini-Ask the White House and we appreciate the questions that we receive. My only regret is that we can't answer more. To that end, we'll try to answer the questions that are the most representative of the emails we receive. And we'll just try our best to answer as many as we can.

May 10, 2004 | 3:06 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Trevor from Bend Oregon:
My mother and father enjoy watching West Wing every Wednesday night. I try and stay up and watch it with them, my dad tells me that someday I can be the President of the United States. I was wondering how much of that show captures the real events around the white house and the west wing.

Thank you for answering my question.

A:Secretary Andy Card, White House Chief of Staff:
The show stretches reality, but frequently has story lines based on credible experiences. The real West Wing is not as "large" as it appears in the television show, and the offices are much smaller. Never have I seen West Wing staffers running around the corridors in any panic. The President is also not likely to give a long speech to his staff in the Oval Office.

May 10, 2004 | 10:55 a.m.(EDT)

Q: Linda from Harrods Creek, KY:
Are citizens allowed to tour the White House at this time?

A:Sara Armstrong, Director of the White House Visitor's Office:
Thank you for your interest in visiting the White House. Tours are available for groups of 10 or more, regardless of age or type of group. Requests must be submitted through your Member of Congress and may be submitted up to six months in advance. We recommend that you submit your request as early as possible since the White House is a popular place to visit. The tours are self-guided and are scheduled from 7:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. Tuesday through Saturday.

You can also tour the White House by visiting our website at Just click on the "History and Tours" section at the top of the homepage where you'll find interesting articles, photos and videos.

Thanks again for your interest. I hope you'll make plans to visit the White House.

May 7, 2004 | 3:54 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Bart from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada:
Does Chief of Staff Andy Card have an actual seat at the Cabinet table or is he a "Counselor to the President"?

A: Brian Montgomery, Deputy Assistant to the President and Cabinet Secretary:
White House Chief of Staff Andrew H. Card, Jr., also serves as a member of the President's Cabinet and has a seat at the table for each Cabinet meeting. His official title is Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, not Counselor to the President. Additionally, the Chief of Staff is also referred to as "Secretary Card" since he served as Secretary of Transportation from 1992-93.

A little background on the President's Cabinet: The Cabinet consists of, at a minimum, the Vice President and the heads of the 15 executive departments, including the newest, the Department of Homeland Security. At the discretion of each President, other individuals have variously been accorded Cabinet-level rank. President Bush has designated, in addition to the Chief of Staff, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the United States Trade Representative, the Administrator of EPA, and the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy, all to have Cabinet Rank.

May 4, 2004 | 5:16 p.m.(EDT)

Q: Tom from Camano Island, WA:
How could this Country who is supposed to represent all that is right in the World allow the treatment of prisoners to happen as reported in our newspapers today? Swift and sure action must be taken to correct this situation (if true).

A: Dr. Condoleezza Rice, National Security Advisor:
I want to assure people in the Arab world, Iraq, around the world, and the American people, that the President is determined to get to the bottom of it, to know who is responsible and to make sure that whoever is responsible is punished for it and held accountable.

And he's determined to find out if there is any wider problem than just what happened at Abu Ghraib. And so he has told Secretary Rumsfeld that he expects an investigation, a full accounting. Americans do not do this to other people. Those pictures were awful because America -- American men and women in uniform, active and reserve, are serving in Iraq at great sacrifice. People are losing their lives. We came there to help to liberate the people of Iraq. We came there to build schools, and to build clinics, and we want very much that the images of Americans should be the images of helping the Iraqi people. It's simply unacceptable that anyone would engage in the abuse of Iraqi prisoners. And we will get to the bottom of it. And those who are responsible will be punished.*

*Interview of the National Security Advisor by Al Arabiya, May 3, 2004

May 4, 2004 | 11:20 a.m.(EDT)

Q: Lori from Great falls, Montana:
I support the war on Terror, But if the courts are releasing these people and they go back into society are we worried they will cause more problems all over again? And what if anything are we going to do about it??

A: Judge Al Gonzales, White House Counsel:
The President's most solemn obligation is protecting the American people. The President is committed to aggressively pursuing the war on terror and to doing everything possible to try to prevent another attack. He is of course doing so in a way that upholds the Constitution and all U.S. laws.

Currently, the Supreme Court is considering several cases regarding the authority of the President to detain certain individuals as enemy combatants in order to prevent them from returning to the battle against America and to obtain intelligence information from them which would help us in fighting the war.

The Administration believes that the determinations made by the President are within his Constitutional powers as Commander in Chief, are supported by Congressional authorization and Supreme Court precedent, and are consistent with the war-time practices of prior presidents. The Supreme Court has not yet issued a decision in any of these cases.

May 4, 2004 | 9:33 a.m.(EDT)

Q: Adam from New York:
To whom it may concern,
I was reading through the executive proclomations of friday, and I noticed that President Bush has proclaimed May 6, 2004, do be a National day of Prayer. I was wondering how this is not in violation of the church and state seperations set forth by the 1st Amendment and protected by several Federal and Supreme court decisions.

A: Jim Towey, Director of the White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives:
President Bush is following the precedent of his predecessors - a practice that began with President Washington, I believe, who proclaimed a national day of fasting and prayer. The event Thursday does not endorse any one religion nor is any citizen obliged to participate. This practice is Constitutional.


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