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September 1, 1998
This Statement of Administration Policy provides the Administration's views
on S. 2334, the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs
Appropriations Bill, FY 1999, as reported by the Senate Appropriations
Committee. Your consideration of the Administration's views would be
The Administration appreciates efforts by the Committee to accommodate many of the President's priorities within the limited 302(b) allocation available, and commends the Committee for its support of key funding priorities such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF). However, the allocation is simply insufficient to make the necessary investments in programs funded by this bill. As a result, a number of key programs are seriously under-funded. To have an effective foreign policy, a strong national security policy, and to promote continued economic prosperity, it is essential that additional resources be made available to the Subcommittee. In addition, there are a number of objectionable restrictions on funding in the bill and a significant number of earmarks that, combined with the reduced funding level, would seriously limit the Administration's ability to conduct foreign policy. For these reasons, if the bill were presented to the President in its current form, the President's senior advisers would recommend that he veto the bill. We hope to reach consensus on these issues as the bill moves forward.
This legislation is a critical element of America's national security budget. At the dawn of a new century, America faces unique challenges and unprecedented opportunities to strengthen our national security, enhance our global leadership, extend the reach of our democratic values, and deepen our own prosperity. The challenges we face are formidable. If this bill in its current form were to become law, however, it would erode our ability to promote critical American interests at home and abroad effectively. The responsibility of safeguarding our national security and exercising U.S. leadership cannot be secured within the resources available to the Subcommittee. We urge the Congress to provide the resources needed to keep America safe, strong, and prosperous.
The only way to achieve the appropriate investment level for the programs funded through this bill is to offset discretionary spending by using savings in other areas. The President's FY 1999 Budget proposes levels of discretionary spending for FY 1999 that conform to the Bipartisan Budget Agreement by making savings through user fees and certain mandatory programs to help finance this spending. In the Transportation Equity Act, Congress -- on a broad, bipartisan basis -- took similar action in approving funding for surface transportation programs paid for with mandatory offsets. In addition, this year, as in the past, such mandatory offsets have been approved by the House and Senate in other appropriations bills. We want to work with the Congress on mutually-agreeable mandatory and other offsets that could be used to increase funding for high-priority discretionary programs, including those funded by this bill.
International Monetary Fund
The Administration welcomes and commends the Committee's efforts to provide funding for both the International Monetary Fund's (IMF's) New Arrangements to Borrow and quota increase. The Administration believes that the immediate approval of these requests is necessary to provide the IMF with the resources it needs to protect the international financial system -- and therefore the U.S. economy -- against the risk of new, escalating, or spreading crises. As recent events, including the new stabilization program for Russia, clearly demonstrate, the IMF's need for additional resources grows more urgent by the day.
The Administration is concerned, however, with some of the provisions of the Committee-reported bill as currently drafted. The Administration is in agreement with many of the underlying objectives as policies that the United States should vigorously promote at the IMF and looks forward to working with the Congress to address these issues in a manner consistent with our goals.
New Independent States
As recent events have indicated, the incomplete peaceful transition of the New Independent States (NIS) to stable, market-based democracies is vital to the U.S. national security. The Congress has shared this view and provided considerable support for this program in the past. The current political/economic situation in Russia highlights how great the stakes are for the United States to continue to help Russia achieve this peaceful transformation. The enormous economic potential of the Caspian Basin represents great opportunities to advance our mutual goals. The Administration commends the Committee for providing resources above the House level. However, the cuts embodied in the Committee's funding level for USAID assistance programs to the NIS would result in a funding level that is $30 million below the FY 1998 level and $185 million below the request.
These cuts would make it extremely difficult to push for market reforms and support democratic forces across the region. Further, the prohibition on all assistance to Russia -- not just the government -- pending certification of termination of all nuclear reactor and ballistic missile technology cooperation with Iran, is so rigid as to impede the Administration's ability to ensure that termination. This would hold programs designed to foster the private sector across Russia hostage to Government policy in Moscow. In addition, the numerous country earmarks would make it more difficult for the Administration to shift assistance to take advantage of new opportunities such as the election of reform-minded governments, peace agreements settling ethnic disputes, or helping leverage reforms by coordination of our assistance with international financial institutions. The Administration strongly favors repeal of continued restrictions on U.S. assistance to Azerbaijan. These restrictions operate as a disincentive to securing peace in the Caucasus, and they do not serve U.S. national interests.
Middle East Assistance
The Administration welcomes the efforts of the Committee to work with us in encouraging changes in traditional levels of assistance to countries in the Middle East. We believe that Israel's initiative to reduce Economic Support Fund (ESF) assistance provides an important basis on which to build future assistance programs that meet our needs in the Middle East and beyond. However, due to the very constrained funding levels for international affairs programs, the Administration has proposed an accelerated approach to the reduction of Israel's ESF. We would encourage the Senate to give strong consideration to such an approach as the bill proceeds through the process.
We are very concerned about the deletion of current authority to allow the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) to maintain an office in Washington, D.C. This would severely undermine our ability to facilitate dialogue between Israel and the Palestinians at what is an extremely sensitive juncture of the peace process.
The Administration appreciates the Committee's effort to increase the funding for the Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank) substantially. The funding increase represents a vote of confidence in the Bank's mission to sustain U.S. jobs and exports that would not otherwise go forward. However, the bill falls short of the level needed to meet anticipated U.S. exporter demand in FY 1999.
The Administration is concerned with the language prohibiting disbursements of Ex-Im Bank credits to programs or enterprises that are majority owned or managed by State entities. The Administration wants to promote private sector development in Russia and other NIS countries. The Administration shares the Committee's goal of supporting private sector businesses in the region and would like to work with the Committee to develop responses to the difficult issue of how to work with governments in the transition period from command to free markets. However, the proposed language would imperil almost $4 billion in U.S. exports tied to current and probable transactions, provoking substantial litigation and undermining the credibility of Ex-Im Bank's financing support for U.S. exporters.
The Administration is strongly opposed to an amendment that may be offered that would require the Ex-Im Bank to approve transactions that did not conform to its environmental guidelines if a foreign government offered -- or indicated -- support for the transaction. This "least common-denominator" amendment could effectively eliminate the guidelines, as virtually every case involving the guidelines is potentially subject to foreign competition. Both in the G-8 and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United States has made real progress in getting other countries to take a serious look at the impact of export credit financing on the environment. If the Ex-Im Bank's environmental guidelines are eliminated due to this amendment, the United States' leadership and credibility on these issues would be significantly threatened and progress on these issues would be substantially hindered.
Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining, and Related Programs (NADR)
The Administration is concerned with the $46 million, or 21 percent, cut to the $216 million request for NADR, but greatly appreciates the Committee's support for the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization. Unfortunately, the NADR reduction undermines the multi-prong effort that NADR supports to reduce the proliferation threat to U.S. national and global security. Lack of funding for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Preparatory Commission would harm U.S. national security interests as it would eviscerate planned improvements in our ability to monitor nuclear testing worldwide. The recent Indian and Pakistani tests are a stark reminder of the importance of this monitoring. As well, we would be forced to reduce support for demining efforts, NIS science centers, and other related activities. The Commission and its International Monitoring System should be funded, regardless of ratification of the CTBT.
Global Environment Facility
The Administration is concerned with the refusal of the Committee to fully fund the request for the Global Environment Facility (GEF), which is helping to reduce long-term environmental risks that will affect all Americans. The full $300 million request for GEF (of which $192.5 million is for arrears) is needed to assure that GEF does not run out of resources in FY 1999. Concerns that funding GEF would prejudge debate on the Kyoto Climate Protocol are misplaced: the new replenishment agreement is funded at the same level as the prior one, and GEF will continue with precisely the same broad work program that it had prior to Kyoto. The GEF is among the best vehicles that the U.S. has to encourage developing countries to shoulder greater responsibility for protecting both the local and global environment. Under the terms of the bipartisan Balanced Budget Act, the Senate can fully fund the arrearage request without making reductions to other programs funded in the bill. It is manifestly in our interests to clear our arrears and keep GEF running, and the Administration strongly urges the Senate to restore funding for this critical program.
Economic Support Fund
The Administration is concerned with the overall funding level for the Economic Support Fund (ESF). At the Committee mark, the Fund would be cut by 50 percent of the funds necessary to support economic and political stability in Latin America, as well as other emerging democracies in Africa and Asia. We strongly encourage the Senate to support a higher funding level for the ESF as the bill moves forward.
Excessive conditions on aid to Haiti, even with a national security waiver, would undercut our efforts to achieve a democratic, self-sustaining Haiti with an honest, independent judiciary.
The Committee has reduced the $83 million request for Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) by 17 percent. PKO provides vital assistance and support for many important national security and foreign policy activities, including commitments in Bosnia and Haiti, conflicts in Africa, and potential trouble spots such as in the Balkans. This reduction would limit the President's ability to respond to these and other evolving events.
Central and Eastern Europe
The Administration appreciates the continued support of the Senate for our efforts to achieve a lasting peace in the Balkans. The assistance programs are essential to meet the goals of the Dayton agreement, including the ability of refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes, reintegration of multi-ethnic communities and institutions, and helping the citizens of the region decide their futures through free and fair elections. The 11-percent reduction to the request for assistance to Bosnia is of concern because it would reduce our ability to react to unforeseen problems or opportunities. This lack of flexibility could impair our ability to reach the goals outlined above and, in turn, would pose a potential problem in terms of reducing our troop levels, a goal shared by the Administration and the Congress. Finally, restrictions in the bill intended to prevent war criminals from benefitting from U.S. assistance, though well-intentioned, would prove extremely difficult to administer. We look forward to working with the Senate to make this language more workable.
Additional reductions in the assistance program for the rest of the region are problematic as well. These reductions come at a time when we are working to phase out assistance. FY 1999 is planned to be the last year for new funding in Lithuania, Poland, and Slovakia, and the year in which we planned to begin capitalizing a joint public-private partnership to help sustain democracy after U.S. bilateral assistance is phased out.
African Development Fund
The Administration is deeply concerned with the $150 million cut to the request for the African Development Fund, which provides resources for the poorest countries in SubSaharan Africa, including the entire request to fund the annual commitment of $67 million and $83 million in arrears. Funding the request is necessary to support the reform measures underway for the past three years at the African Development Bank and Fund. The Administration strongly urges the Senate to restore funding for this critical program.
Community Adjustment and Investment Program
The Administration is very concerned with the Committee's failure to fund the Community Adjustment and Investment Program (CAIP), a program initially funded through the North American Development Bank, a multilateral development bank. The CAIP was established to help communities affected by adverse trade patterns associated with implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement. To date, the program has assisted in more than 120 loans in 20 States, leveraging private sector financing of over $70 million. The $37 million requested would significantly bolster CAIP's ability to continue this work, as well as to support technical assistance, grants, and micro-lending. The Administration strongly urges the Senate to restore funding for this innovative program.
Asian Development Fund
The Administration appreciates the Committee's support for the Asian Development Fund, reflected in the $187 million funding of arrears. Nevertheless, the Committee's mark excludes the $100 million request to fund our annual commitment to the Asian Development Fund; thus, it would result in substantial net new arrears to the Fund. The Administration is committed to clearing up current arrears and to avoiding the creation of new arrears. The Asia Development Fund has played an important role in addressing the Asian economic crisis. The Administration strongly urges the Senate to fund the Administration's request of $150 million towards arrears and $100 million towards the annual commitment.
The Administration is deeply concerned with the $49 million cut to the request for the Peace Corps. This reduction, to a level $5 million below the FY 1998 funding level, would not only preclude the Peace Corps initiative to fund 10,000 volunteers by the year 2000, but would require the Peace Corps to reduce costs equivalent to closing six country programs and reducing the number of volunteers by 500. The Administration strongly encourages the Senate to support a higher funding level for the Peace Corps.
Treasury Debt Restructuring
The $25 million funding level for international debt restructuring is inadequate to finance anticipated debt restructuring for some of the poorest countries in FY 1999, especially debt relief proposed under the President's new Africa Initiative. The Administration's $72 million request was made on the basis of debt reduction anticipated for up to 14 countries to receive debt relief through the Paris Club group of official creditors or through the Africa Initiative's bilateral concessional debt reduction component. If this $25 million funding level were enacted, the Administration would be unable to provide debt relief to a number of sub-Saharan African countries likely to be eligible under the Africa Initiative.
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Development Assistance
While the Administration appreciates the Committee's provision (after permitted transfers) of an amount for USAID Development Assistance very close to the President's request, we are concerned about the multitude of earmarks, which would make it difficult to fully fund the shared assistance priorities of the President and Congress in regions such as Africa and Latin America. In particular, while the Administration is committed to helping Indonesia through its current economic crisis, we are concerned that the Committee's earmark for Indonesia, by reducing the President's flexibility, may actually impede our efforts to respond most effectively to the changing nature of the Asian economic crisis. The Administration is concerned about new onerous language related to climate change, including additional procedural requirements and the omission of existing language that provides "notwithstanding" authority for activities intended to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions.
International Narcotics Control
The Administration is deeply concerned about the $53 million reduction to the $275 million request for International Narcotics Control. Such a reduction would negatively impact country programs, especially in the Andean region, that are aimed at reducing the supply of cocaine. The reduction would force the redirection of available resources to cocaine producing countries at the expense of heroin reduction efforts in Southeast Asia.
International Organizations and Programs
The Committee bill reduces the request for International Organizations and Programs by $44 million, which would limit significantly U.S. ability to participate and support a number of international organizations, particularly those involved with global environmental activities.
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Operating Expenses
The Administration appreciates the Committee's effort to provide a small increase above the FY 1998 enacted level for USAID Operating Expenses. However, we are concerned that this level will not allow USAID to complete the Year 2000 conversion and implement other necessary management improvements while implementing the President's initiatives in Africa and Latin America and effectively managing its ongoing programs, including congressional priorities in areas such as infectious diseases and child survival. Therefore, we urge the Senate to provide additional funding for USAID Operating Expenses.
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Operating Expenses: Inspector General
The Administration appreciates the Committee's effort to provide a small increase above the FY 1998 enacted level for Operating Expenses for the Office of the USAID Inspector General. However, we are concerned that this level will not provide sufficient funding to allow the Inspector General to carry out fully his increased audit responsibilities under the GPRA and GMRA while also responding to the increased costs of providing security for USAID in the Ronald Reagan Building. Therefore, we urge the Senate to provide additional funding for the USAID Inspector General.
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Credit Programs
The Administration is concerned that the Committee has reduced the requested subsidy amount for the Urban Environment (UE) credit program and has not provided transfer authority for USAID's Development Credit Authority (DCA). As the Congress and the Administration agreed in the FY 1998 appropriations legislation, USAID has taken substantial steps towards developing the capacity to manage both its existing and future credit portfolios. We urge the Senate to restore the transfer authority for the DCA and increase funding for the UE program. Failure to do so would limit the ability of USAID to use credit to promote development in urban areas and to encourage the development of needed private sector financial mechanisms.
Overseas Private Investment Corporation
The Administration is pleased the Committee has provided full program funding for the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). However, we are concerned with the provision of the bill that would withhold one-half of the agency's administrative budget. The Administration is working closely with the Committee to resolve any outstanding issues and notes that withholding funds would impede the agency's efforts to support American business and promote U.S. foreign policy.
African Development Foundation
The Committee has reduced the $14 million request for the African Development Foundation (ADF) by 43 percent. Through its grants program, ADF supports community-based, self-help initiatives in Africa. This reduction would severely limit the ability of the Foundation to respond to the development needs at the grassroots level in Africa. The Administration urges the Senate to fund this program at the requested level.
Year 2000 Conversion
The need to conform with Year 2000 (Y2K) conversion requirements mandates the additional investments in information technology and credit management that are included in the requests for USAID Operating Expenses, Peace Corps, and the other agencies funded in this bill. It is essential to make Y2K funding available quickly and flexibly. We appreciate the action of the Senate Appropriations Committee to provide an emergency fund in the Treasury/General Government bill for such purposes. We urge Congress to leave as much as possible of the reserve unallocated so that funds are available to address emerging needs.