Eisenhower Executive Office Building.

Historical View of the EEOB — The 1800's

Photo showing the construction of the South and East wings of the EEOB, 1874 (NARA)
Construction of the south and east wings, July 1, 1874. With the State Department wing nearing completion, work began on the foundations for the Navy, east wing. National Archives Records Administration.
Next door to the White House, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building (EEOB) commands a unique position in both our national history and architectural heritage. Designed by Supervising Architect of the Treasury, Alfred B. Mullett, it was built from 1871 to 1888 to house the growing staffs of the State, War, and Navy Departments, and is considered one of the best examples of French Second Empire architecture in the country. In bold contrast to many of the somber classical revival buildings in Washington, the EEOB's flamboyant style epitomizes the optimism and exuberance of the post-Civil War period.

Photo of the War Department's North Wing, July 4, 1890 (Library of Congress)
The War Department's north wing dressed up for the 4th of July, ca. 1890. Library of Congress.
The State, War, and Navy Building, as it was originally known, housed the three Executive Branch Departments most intimately associated with formulating and conducting the nation's foreign policy in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth century -- the period when the United States emerged as an international power. The building has housed some of the nation's most significant diplomats and politicians and has been the scene of many historic events.

Photo showing bronze stair balusters for the State Department, South Wing (Walter Smalling, Jr.)
Bronze stair balusters for the State Department, south wing. Walter Smalling, Jr.
The history of the EEOB began long before its foundations were laid. The first executive offices were constructed on sites flanking the White House between 1799 and 1820. A series of fires (including the burning by the British in 1814) and overcrowded conditions led to the construction of the existing Treasury Building, and in 1866, the construction of the North Wing of the Treasury Building necessitated the demolition of the State Department building to the northeast of the White House. The State Department then moved to the D.C. Orphan Asylum Building while the War and Navy Departments continued to make do with their cramped quarters to the west of the White House.

Photo showing the construction of the south wing, June 24, 1873. (NARA)
Construction of the south wing, June 24, 1873. National Archives Records Administration.
In December of 1869, Congress appointed a commission to select a site and prepare plans and cost estimates for a new State Department Building. The commission was also to consider possible arrangements for the War and Navy Departments. To the horror of some who expected a Greek Revival twin of the Treasury Building to be erected on the other side of the White House, the elaborate French Second Empire style design by Alfred Mullett was selected, and construction of a building to house all three departments began in June of 1871.

Photo showing the detail of mantelpiece from former office of the Secretary of State (White House Photo)
Detail of mantelpiece from the former office of the Secretary of State. White House Photo.
Construction took 17 years as the building slowly rose wing by wing. When the EEOB was finished in 1888, it was the largest office building in Washington, with nearly 2 miles of black and white tiled corridors. Almost all of the interior detail is of cast iron or plaster; the use of wood was minimized to insure fire safety. Eight monumental curving staircases of granite with over 4,000 individually cast bronze balusters are capped by four skylight domes and two stained glass rotundas.

Photo of the EOP library (Walter Smalling, Jr.)
The Executive Office of the President Library was originally the State Department's Library. This room was constructed entirely of cast iron in 1875. Walter Smalling, Jr.
Completed in 1875, the State Department's south wing was the first to be occupied, with its elegant four-story library (completed in 1876), Diplomatic Reception Room, and Secretary's office decorated with carved wood, Oriental rugs, and stenciled wall patterns.

The Navy Department moved into the east wing in 1879, where elaborate wall and ceiling stenciling and marqetry floors decorated the office of the Secretary. The Indian Treaty Room, originally the Navy's library and reception room, cost more per square foot than any other room in the building because of its rich marble wall panels, tiled floors, 800-pound bronze sconces, and gold leaf ornamentation. This room has been the scene of many Presidential news conferences and continues to be used for conferences and receptions attended by the President.

Photo of the Indian Treaty Room (White House Photo)
The Indian Treaty Room. This two-story room has seen the signing of international treaties, press conferences, and presidential ceremonies. The bronze lamps in each corner represent For Peace Prepare for War, Liberty, Science, and Industry, 1991. Joyce Naltchayan.
The remaining north, west, and center wings were constructed for the War Department and took an additional 10 years to build. Notable interiors include an ornate cast-iron library, the Secretary's suite, and the stained glass skylight over the west wing's double staircase.

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