[ Previous Section | Table of Contents | Next Section ]
While the United States and our allies continue direct actions against terrorists and their
infrastructures abroad, we are simultaneously strengthening the security of the homeland. The
President signed significant new legislation that has advanced the war on terror, expanded our
intelligence and law enforcement capabilities, bolstered transportation security, stockpiled
vaccines, provided equipment and training for first responders, and reorganized the Federal
government to address todays security challenges.
Since September 11, 2001, the President has signed numerous critical pieces of legislation into
- Homeland Security Act of 2002
- USA PATRIOT Act of 2001
- Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001
- Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002
- Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002
- Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002
These laws, combined with the redirection of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) into an
agency focused on preventing terrorism and the redoubling of efforts at the Department of Health
and Human Services (HHS) to improve the nation's preparedness for identifying and responding
to bioterrorism, have reorganized the institutions of the Federal government and provided
significant resources in our arsenal to fight terrorism. To continue meeting the new threats of the
21st Century, the 2004 budget includes $41 billion to continue homeland efforts -- more than
doubling 2002 funding.
Reorganizing the Federal Government
The Department of Homeland Security
- On November 25, 2002, the President signed the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The Act
established a cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and transferred to it 22
existing Federal entities dedicated to preventing, mitigating, and responding to terrorist
attacks on the United States. To execute the Act, the Administration undertook the most
extensive reorganization of the government in the past 50 years to ensure that the United
States would have one Department with the primary mission of protecting the American homeland.
- The Department is securing our borders, transportation systems, ports, and critical
infrastructure; analyzing intelligence; augmenting the response capabilities of states and
local governments; and conducting research to develop the next generation of terrorism countermeasures.
Intelligence and Information Sharing
- At the Presidents direction, the Director of Central Intelligence, the Director of the FBI, and
the Secretaries of Defense and Homeland Security, working with the Attorney General and
the Secretary of State, established the Terrorist Threat Integration Center (TTIC) to integrate
and analyze terrorism threat-related information collected domestically and abroad. TTIC
focuses on connecting-the-dots, and since becoming operational on May 1, 2003, has
issued hundreds of terrorist threat-related products. TTIC has over 100 officers drawn from
partner agencies, a number expected to grow to several hundred by this time next year. Also
at the Presidents direction, key elements of the CIAs Counterterrorist Center (CTC) and
the FBIs Counterterrorism Division (CTD) will co-locate with TTIC in 2004 to enable still
- To ensure that the Department of Homeland Security and other organizations needing
- information related to threats to the United States promptly receive all such information,
Attorney General John Ashcroft, Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge and Director
of Central Intelligence George Tenet signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in
March 2003. Actions being taken under this MOU, as well as other interagency agreements
and processes, are implementing a new systematic approach to interagency information sharing.
- The CIA doubled the size of its Counterterrorist Center (CTC) and quadrupled the number
of counterterrorism analysts in the wake of September 11. In particular, CTC enhanced the
number of analysts dedicated to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear issues, and
significantly increased the volume and scope of strategic and tactical analytic reports
delivered to senior Administration officials on such topics as terrorist infrastructure and
capabilities, network analysis, and terrorist profiles. CTCs cooperation with foreign
intelligence services on counterterrorism issues also has risen sharply.
- One of the most significant law enforcement tools in the war on terrorism is the USA
PATRIOT Act. Passed in Congress by an overwhelming majority, the Act has strengthened
our ability to prevent, investigate, and prosecute acts of terror by providing enhanced tools
to detect and disrupt terrorist cells. The Act removed major legal barriers that had hampered
coordination between the law enforcement, intelligence, and national defense communities
in their efforts to protect the American people. Now police officers, FBI agents, Federal
prosecutors and intelligence officials, while working within the safeguards of our
Constitution, can better protect our communities by uncovering terrorist plots before they
are carried out. The Act also updated the law to accommodate new technology and new
threats, allowing us to fight a digital-age battle with modern tools. Many of the tools the Act
provides to law enforcement to fight terrorism have been used for decades to fight organized
crime and drug dealers, and have been reviewed and approved repeatedly by our courts.
- Under the leadership of the Attorney General, the FBI is being transformed into an agency
dedicated to the prevention of terrorism, while remaining committed to other important
national security and law enforcement responsibilities.
- Under the revised Attorney Generals Investigative Guidelines and other reforms, the
FBI has increased its analytic capabilities, improved law enforcement coordination,
increased information sharing, and overhauled its information technology systems.
- The Attorney General established the National Joint Terrorism Task Force at FBI
Headquarters and expanded to 66 fully operational Joint Terrorism Task Forces.
There is a JTTF in each of the 56 field offices, as well as a growing number in FBIs
smaller Resident Agencies. These interagency organizations focus exclusively on
terrorism, bringing together personnel, intelligence, and capabilities from Federal,
state, and local law enforcement, DHS, the Intelligence Community, and other Federal agencies.
- The FBI has centralized its own activities for intelligence gathering and analysis and,
for the first time, created a 24-hour counterterrorism watch office to serve as the focal
point for all incoming terrorist threat information. The watch office quickly
distributes information to appropriate elements in law enforcement and the Intelligence Community.
- The FBIs Legal Attache (Legat) Program, with over 45 offices around the world,
greatly enhances the capability of the United States to wage the war against terrorism
and addresses the full range of criminal threats to the United States in an increasingly
globalized world. In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks and throughout the
following year, FBI Legats facilitated the rapid deployment of approximately 700 FBI
personnel overseas to investigate terrorist attacks against the United States and allied interests.
- At the Presidents direction, the Department of Justice (DOJ) established the Foreign
Terrorist Tracking Task Force (FTTTF), as one step in Federal agencies efforts to
identify potential terrorists attempting to enter or remain in the United States.
Managed by the FBI with participation from DHS, DOD, and other government
agencies, analysis conducted by the FTTTF has resulted in over 300 referrals made to
law enforcement or Intelligence Community agencies.
- Under the direction of the Attorney General, the U.S. Attorneys have constituted and led
Anti-Terrorism Task Forces (ATTF) in each of their respective districts, coordinating
numerous anti-terrorism initiatives, information sharing programs and training sessions, and
forging unprecedented levels of outreach and cooperation with state and local law
Analysis and Warning
- The Department of Homeland Security disseminates information regarding the risk of
terrorist attacks to Federal, state, and local authorities, to include the public and private
sectors. Further, information regarding the risk of terrorist attacks, including such
information prepared by DHS, is distributed to all FBI Joint Terrorism Task Forces through
the FBIs National Joint Terrorism Task Force.
- The Information Analysis (IA) division of the Information Analysis and Infrastructure
Protection (IAIP) directorate of DHS is doing unprecedented work in assessing the nature
and scope of terrorist threats to the homeland. Some of the Departments work in this area
is carried out in part by IA analysts who are full partners and participants in the Presidents
Terrorist Threat Integration Center (TTIC) initiative, and physically located at TTIC. Other
threat analysis is carried out by IAIP analysts located at Headquarters, in close coordination
with TTIC. IAIP also will provide full intelligence support to all elements of DHS,
including conducting its own independent analysis of threats to the homeland, and red
teaming, in which DHS analysts try to anticipate potential attacks by thinking like the
terrorists. DHS relies upon the analysis produced by IA, to help determine priorities for
protective and support measures and provide information to Federal, state, and local
government agencies and authorities, and private sector entities.
- The multi-agency partners in TTIC integrate and analyze terrorist threat-related information,
collected domestically and abroad, to form a comprehensive threat picture, and disseminate
such information to recipients who take preventive action.
- Since September 11, 2001, the FBI has received and assessed the credibility of
approximately 3,600 threats to the United States. The National Threats Warning System has
issued 62 threat warnings, 55 Be On the Lookout (BOLO) alerts, and 82 Intelligence
Bulletins. These warnings are disseminated to more than 18,000 state and local law
enforcement agencies in the United States, over 60 Federal agencies and subcomponents,
and all U.S. Attorneys.
- To strengthen the effectiveness of U.S. military forces engaged in homeland security, the
President authorized the establishment of U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM). It
began operations on October 1, 2002, and will be fully operational by October 2003.
USNORTHCOM eliminates gaps among the different military organizations that currently
have homeland defense responsibilities and strengthens military support to civilian agencies.
Reducing Americas Vulnerability to Terrorism. DHS is maintaining Americas
open land, sea and air borders, facilitating the legitimate flow of commerce and people, while at
the same time detecting and interdicting terrorists and their weapons before they enter the United
States. The Administration is also strengthening our critical infrastructure protection efforts by
coordinating the activities of Federal agencies responsible for infrastructure protection and
combining information from the Intelligence Community, Federal, state, and local law
enforcement, and the private sector to map threats to critical infrastructure against known
Operation Liberty Shield
- The Department of Homeland Security, in conjunction with numerous departments and
agencies of the Federal government, implemented Operation LIBERTY SHIELD to
increase protective measures during a period of heightened alert in March 2003. This
comprehensive national plan to protect the homeland increased security at our borders,
strengthened transportation sector protections, enhanced security at critical infrastructure,
increased public health preparedness and ensured that all Federal response assets could be
rapidly deployed. It built the foundation for our countrys critical infrastructure protection programs.
- The Department of State has developed new tamper-resistant visas, extended the application
review process, enhanced the visa lookout system, and improved information sharing among
U.S. law enforcement agencies and the Intelligence Community. In 2003, visa screening
requirements were tightened, requiring face-to-face interviews for almost all applicants.
- The Department of State has developed the Terrorist Interdiction Program (TIP) to assist
nations at high risk of terrorist transit by providing them with a computer database system
that enables border control officials to quickly identify people attempting to enter or leave
the country. TIP is now in 12 nations and will expand to 18 by the end of 2003.
Tracking, Monitoring, and Interdiction
- In December 2001, the United States and Canada signed the Smart Border Declaration,
which included 30 action items for increasing security, enhancing joint law enforcement,
improving physical and technological infrastructure, and facilitating the trade and movement
of people between the two countries. The U.S.-Mexican Border Partnership, signed in
March 2002, contains a similar 22-point action plan.
- Strong cooperation between the United States, Canada, and Mexico has resulted in several
programs that will enable the Department of Homeland Security to focus its security efforts
and inspections on high-risk commerce and travelers: Free and Secure Trade Initiative
(FAST), the U.S.-Canada NEXUS program, and the Secure Electronic Network for Traveler
Rapid Inspection (SENTRI).
- DHS is operating the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS), which
tracks foreign students who come to the United States, ensuring they are actually enrolled
and attending classes, while facilitating the entry of legitimate students.
- The U.S. Visitor and Immigrant Status Indication Technology system (U.S. VISIT) is
designed to make entering the United States easier for legitimate tourists, students, and
business travelers, while making it more difficult to enter the United States illegally through
the implementation of biometrically authenticated documents. The system will utilize
biometric identifiers -- a photograph and fingerprints -- to build an electronic checkin/
check-out system for people coming to the United States to work, study, or visit. The U.S.
VISIT system will replace the current NSEERS program, integrate the SEVIS program, and
accomplish the requirements for an automated entry/exit system. The system will scan
travel documents to enable inspectors to check against databases to determine whether the
individual should be detained or questioned further. U.S. VISIT will begin its first phase of
operation at international air and sea ports of entry by the end of 2003.
- Approximately 10,000 Border Patrol Agents are now patrolling our borders. By January
2004, some 1,000 will be assigned to the Canadian border, an increase of more than 50
percent over the past 12 months.
- Enhancing our security measures abroad, the DHS Bureau of Customs and Border
Protection (BCBP) launched the Container Security Initiative (CSI), establishing tough new
procedures to target high-risk cargo before it is loaded on containers headed for U.S. ports.
As of August 2003, 19 of the worlds major ports, handling two-thirds of cargo containers
destined for the United States, have agreed to participate in CSI. There are plans to expand
the initiative to 27 additional high volume ports in strategic locations throughout the world.
- Operation Safe Commerce (OSC) is a public-private partnership to fund new initiatives
designed to enhance tracking and security for container cargo moving through the
international transportation system to the United States. OSC helps facilitate the efficient
movement of legitimate commerce.
- DHS now requires electronic advance cargo manifests from sea carriers 24 hours prior to
loading in a foreign port to give officials more time to check for potentially dangerous cargo.
- Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) technology inspects shipping containers determined to be
high risk by the U.S. Automated Targeting System (ATS). Sophisticated large-scale
radiation detection portals and hand-held technologies substantially increase the likelihood
that nuclear or radiological materials and weapons will be detected.
- Since September 11, the Coast Guard has made the largest commitment to port security
operations since World War II, including over 124,000 port security patrols and 13,300 air
patrols. The Coast Guard boarded more than 92,000 high interest vessels, interdicted over
9,473 individuals attempting to enter the United States illegally, and created and maintained
more than 94 Maritime Security Zones.
- In implementing the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, the Coast Guard will
require ports, vessels, and facilities to perform security assessments, develop plans, and
address security deficiencies. Both domestic regulations and international requirements
oblige all nations to develop and implement port and ship security plans by July 1, 2004.
- There are some 48,000 newly trained Federal screeners deployed at our nations airports,
where new baggage inspection equipment helped the Transportation Security Administration
(TSA) institute 100 percent checked baggage screening. All airport personnel must now
undergo background checks.
- DHS and the Department of State suspended the Transit without Visa program (TWOV) and
the International-to-International transit program (ITI), eliminating terrorists ability to
exploit these programs to gain access to U.S.-bound aircraft or the United States.
- The Federal Air Marshal program was expanded so that thousands of protective air marshals
are now flying on commercial aircraft.
- All large commercial passenger aircraft flying within or to the United States now have
hardened cockpit doors to help prevent their hostile takeover. Armed pilots who have
received Federal training can also defend their aircraft.
- DHS and other agencies are working with foreign countries, airports, and local and Federal
law enforcement agencies to prevent the proliferation of shoulder-launched missiles that can
be used against commercial aircraft. DHS is conducting vulnerability assessments at key
Critical Infrastructure Protection
- Critical infrastructure protection refers to efforts to enhance the security of physical and
cyber-based systems and assets that are essential to national security, national economic
security, or public health and safety. Protective actions include a wide range of activities
designed to reduce the vulnerability of critical infrastructures in order to deter, neutralize or
mitigate terrorist attacks.
- DHS meets with industry on a regular basis to share information, lessons learned, and best
practices. DHS has been working with the economic and industrial sectors to develop a
range of vulnerability assessment tools to meet their unique security challenges and needs.
The security plans factor in the identified vulnerabilities to create a community-based
approach to enhancing the security of critical infrastructure. Recent efforts include the
- DHS has recently begun a comprehensive training program that involves chemical
facility operators, site security managers, and local law enforcement personnel. The
training takes those who would be involved in the prevention of a terrorist attack at a
facility and ensures everyone understands its vulnerabilities, risks, and protective
measures. The training uses realistic terrorist threat information, and has resulted in a
public/private team better equipped to prevent terrorists from using our chemical
facilities as a tool to attack Americans.
- The U.S. chemical industry has worked in partnership with the Department of
Homeland Security and others to evaluate vulnerabilities and put enhanced measures
in place to ensure the safety of its facilities and neighboring communities.
- DHS has developed reports on common vulnerabilities to critical infrastructures,
reports on indicators of terrorist activities in or around facilities, and security plan
templates for use by local and state law enforcement personnel, as well as the private
sector. The Department is beginning a national effort to provide technical assistance
with the implementation of tailored security plans based on these documents.
- The Department recently created a Soft Targets Unit with the Protective Security Division to
assist state and local law enforcement in reducing vulnerabilities to attack in shopping malls,
entertainment venues, sports stadiums, and other public gathering areas.
- Passage of the Safe Explosives Act of 2002 strengthened the ability of the Bureau of
Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) to prevent the acquisition of explosive
materials by terrorists and others who would misuse them. Among other things, it expanded
the Federal explosives permitting requirement to ensure that all persons who acquire
explosives have been subjected to a background check and issued an ATF permit.
- The Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection (IAIP) division of DHS established a
Critical Infrastructure Information Program Office to handle voluntarily submitted
information about threats and vulnerabilities. IAIP released draft regulations for
implementing the Critical Infrastructure Information Act this spring and is now developing
the final guidelines.
- In June 2003, DHS created the National Cyber Security Division (NCSD) as a focal point
for the Federal governments interaction with state and local government, the private sector,
and the international community concerning cyberspace vulnerability reduction efforts.
- A central element of the NCSD is the Cyber Security Tracking Analysis and Response
Center, which examines cyber security incidents and coordinates efforts to mitigate damage.
- During the recent rash of internet worms and viruses, the NCSD played a central role in
coordinating national response efforts. NCSD rapidly convened technical experts from
government, industry, and academia to analyze and develop guidance that they promptly
shared with Federal, state and local governments, infrastructure operators, and individual
- Through the FedCIRC (Federal Computer Incident Response Center) program, NCSD also
provided extensive guidance and assistance to Federal agencies during these virus and worm
events. This aid significantly reduced the impact of these events on government systems.
Enhancing Detection, Response, and Recovery from Biological and Chemical Terrorism
- The Administration has bolstered the nations defense against an attack with a biological or
chemical weapon through several parallel and complementary efforts. DHS, the Department
of Health and Human Services (HHS), and other agencies are focused on detection,
response, and research and development.
- The Administration has directed approximately $2.5 billion to state and local public health
agencies, hospitals, and other health care entities since September 11, 2001, to improve
planning, implement rapid secure communications, increase laboratory capacity, and
upgrade the capacity to detect, diagnose, investigate and respond to a terrorist attack with a
biological agent, and provide clinical care and treatments for those affected.
- As part of his proposed Project BioShield, the President has requested $5.6 billion to
accelerate the development and acquisition of next-generation vaccines and other products
to counter bioterror threats. Project BioShield will accelerate the National Institute of
Healths (NIH) research and development of countermeasures, permit the FDA to make
promising treatments quickly available during emergencies, and allow the U.S. government
to purchase needed countermeasures as soon as they become available.
- The National Institute of Healths (NIH) civilian biodefense research budget has been
increased from around $100 million prior to September 11, 2001, to $1.5 billion in 2003.
The President has proposed an additional $1.6 billion for 2004. The NIHs investment
focuses on new drugs and vaccines, and diagnostics for high threat agents such as anthrax,
smallpox, Ebola, and others.
- DHSs BioWatch program has placed detectors in over 30 cities, providing the capability to
detect a variety of biological agents of concern. Samples from these detectors are tested in
Federally supported local laboratories and provide results within 12-36 hours.
- The Strategic National Stockpile was enlarged to 12 pre-positioned 50-ton packages of
drugs, vaccines, medical supplies, and equipment that stand ready for immediate
deployment to anywhere in the United States within 12 hours. In the last year, the stockpile
has been expanded to treat 12 million persons exposed to anthrax, and to treat injuries
following a chemical attack.
- The Department of Defense has immunized over 490,000 soldiers and support personnel
against smallpox. Though the Administration does not currently recommend smallpox
vaccinations for the general public, HHS has acquired enough smallpox vaccine to
immunize every person in the United States, if needed, following a smallpox attack and has
begun immunizing health care personnel who would administer the vaccine.
Agriculture and Food Security
- The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) increased the number of food safety inspectors
by 655, doubling its capacity to conduct safety inspections of our food systems.
- The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) increased personnel at borders by 50 percent
over FY 2000 levels to enhance efforts to keep foreign agricultural pests and diseases from
entering the United States. The number of ports of entry with FDA staffing has increased
from 40 to 90.
- The USDA and HHS issued complementary regulations establishing new safeguards for the
control of select agents that could pose a threat, in accordance with the Public Health
Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002.
- The National Animal Health Laboratory Network and the National Plant Diagnostic
Laboratory Network were developed with land-grant universities and state veterinary
diagnostic laboratories around the country to create plant and animal health laboratory
networks that have increased our capability to respond in an emergency.
- The food regulatory agencies, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) and the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA), have evaluated over 35 different domestic and imported food
and product categories for vulnerabilities to terrorist attack. The Administration is
evaluating and implementing plans and new technologies to protect against potential attacks
to the food supply.
Enhancing Emergency Preparedness and Response Capabilities. Despite our
best efforts at preventing future attacks, terrorism will continue to be a threat, and we must
always be prepared to respond to an attack. We are better prepared to minimize the damage and
recover from any future terrorist attacks by equipping and training our first responders and public
- The U.S. government provided $7.9 billion in grants between 2002 and 2003 to help state
and local responders, public health agencies, and emergency managers prepare for terrorist
attacks. The Presidents 2004 Budget request included an additional $5.2 billion to ensure
first responders and public health and medical personnel are properly trained and equipped
Progress Report on the Global War on Terrorism 16
to respond to terrorism. This includes funds to purchase protective gear for working in
hazardous environments and devices for detecting and disarming explosives and other
- Departments and agencies throughout the government have taken actions to increase
preparedness by providing first responders with training and exercise opportunities. Since
September 2001, approximately 346,000 responders have been certified on basic
- At the Federal level, a recent weapons of mass destruction exercise entitled TOPOFF2,
involved two major U.S. cities (Chicago and Seattle), as well as major response elements
within the U.S. government up to the cabinet level, and portions of the Canadian
government. This exercise provided an opportunity for analysis of the abilities of Federal,
state, and local response mechanisms to respond to a complex terrorist attack. In August
2003, the Department of Defense conducted a multi-level exercise to test
USNORTHCOMs ability to respond to multiple, simultaneous homeland security and
Federal relief events.
- During FY 2003, DHS provided assistance to upgrade the number of Urban Search and
Rescue teams capable of addressing weapons of mass destruction (WMD) from 6 to 28.
- More than 700 Citizen Corps Councils have been formed in communities, states, and
territories to better prepare communities to meet the threats of terrorism, crime, public health
issues, and other disasters. Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) training is now
available in 417 localities in 46 states and one U.S. territory.
National Response Plan
- The Department of Homeland Security is creating a fully integrated national emergency
response system that can adapt to any terrorist attack or natural disaster. They are also
consolidating Federal response plans and building a national system for incident
- The National Response Plan is being developed, under the direction of the Secretary of
Homeland Security, to coordinate and integrate all Federal domestic incident prevention,
preparedness, response, and recovery plans.
- The President directed the development of a National Incident Management System (NIMS)
to make Federal, state, and local entities interoperable during incidents. Development of the
NIMS will involve consultation with state and local organizations, the private sector, and
other Federal agencies.
[ Previous Section | Table of Contents | Next Section ]