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Since September 11, 2001, the United States, with the help of its allies and partners, has dismantled the repressive Taliban, denied al-Qaida a safe haven in Afghanistan, and defeated Saddam Hussein’s regime. Actions at home and abroad have produced the following results:

  • Of the senior al-Qaida leaders, operational managers, and key facilitators the U.S. government has been tracking, nearly two-thirds have been taken into custody or killed.
  • The Department of Justice has charged over 260 individuals uncovered in the course of terrorist investigations, and convicted or secured guilty pleas from over 140 individuals. The U.S. government has disrupted alleged terrorist cells in Buffalo, Seattle, Portland, Detroit, North Carolina and Tampa.
  • Terror networks have lost access to nearly $200 million.


The creation of the Department of Homeland Security and its work with other departments and agencies have expanded our intelligence and law enforcement capabilities, improved information sharing, and facilitated the quick dissemination of threat-related information to the front lines. The homeland is markedly more secure than two years ago due to these and other initiatives:

  • The Administration is working to create "Smart Borders", facilitating the rapid flow of legitimate commerce and people while detecting terrorists and their weapons before they enter the United States.
  • The Terrorist Threat Integration Center (TTIC) has been established, integrating and analyzing terrorism threat-related information collected domestically and abroad, ensuring that intelligence and law enforcement entities are working in common purpose.
  • The USA PATRIOT Act provides authorities that strengthen law enforcement’s abilities to prevent, investigate and prosecute acts of terror, facilitating Department of Justice efforts to thwart potential terrorist activity throughout the United States.


Over 170 nations continue to participate in the war on terrorism by taking terrorists into custody, freezing terrorist assets and providing military forces and other support. International organizations are also adapting to meet the threat. Additionally, there have been numerous steps taken to eliminate underlying circumstances that foster terrorism:

  • Actions taken by the G-8 will enhance transport security, expand counterterrorism training and assistance, and help reduce the threat of surface-to-air missiles to civil aviation.
  • Along with our partners, we are providing aid for humanitarian assistance and reconstruction in Iraq and Afghanistan. Along with initiatives to foster economic growth and development throughout the world, this will deny terrorists recruits and safe havens.

The United States and its allies have made great progress in the global war on terrorism, but victory will only occur through the sustained efforts of a global coalition. We must remain on the offensive, preemptively stopping terrorists seeking to do harm against the United States, its citizens and partners, and creating an international environment inhospitable to terrorism.


“The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were acts of war against the United States of America, its allies, friends, and against the very idea of civilized society. No cause justifies terrorism. The world must respond and fight this evil that is intent on threatening and destroying our basic freedoms and our way of life. Freedom and fear are at war. The enemy is not one person. It is not a single political regime. Certainly it is not a religion. The enemy is terrorism.”

The National Strategy for Combating Terrorism, February 2003

The United States is engaged in a comprehensive effort to protect and defend the homeland and defeat terrorism. Using all instruments of national power, the United States and its partners are attacking terrorists both at home and abroad, denying terrorists sanctuary and sponsorship, disrupting the financing of terror, and building and maintaining a united global front against terrorism.

With the help of our friends and allies, we have eliminated Afghanistan as a safe haven for al- Qaida and disrupted terrorist cells around the world. Iraq is now the central front for the war on terror. While the United States and its partners have defeated Saddam Hussein’s regime of terror, enemies of freedom -- both members of the old regime and foreign terrorists who have come to Iraq -- are making a desperate stance to reclaim this liberated nation for tyranny. They will be defeated. In the past, terrorists have cited Beirut and Somalia as examples of America fleeing from challenge when harmed. In this, the President has affirmed, they are mistaken. We are resolved to win the global war on terrorism.

America and all free nations are fighting an enemy that wishes to strike with indiscriminate terror to weaken our resolve, and exploit the way of life that makes our nation both strong and inherently vulnerable. Our best defense against terrorists is to root them out wherever they hide - - in the Iraq and Afghanistan theaters and throughout the world -- and preempt acts of terror by using all the tools of statecraft. We will continue to invigorate traditional alliances and build new partnerships to carry this effort forward.

The U.S. government has no more important mission than protecting the homeland from future terrorist attacks. We are reforming and improving our threat warning and intelligence, expanding our law enforcement capability, increasing security in key sectors such as transportation, borders and ports, and other critical infrastructure, developing new vaccines and technologies to counter potential threats, and ensuring our Federal, state, and local responders are prepared to manage crises effectively. The United States has undertaken sweeping organizational changes, the magnitude of which has not been seen in 50 years.

This report highlights the Administration’s efforts to defeat terrorism and secure the homeland. It also underscores the nature of the continuing threat and the Administration’s dedication to bringing to justice those who plot against America. Despite accumulating successes in the war on terrorism -- some seen, some unseen -- terrorists continue to wage war on the civilized world. Murderous attacks in Bali, Jakarta, Mombasa, Riyadh, Casablanca, Jerusalem, Baghdad, and Najaf underscore terrorists’ continued contempt for the innocent, their fear of progress, and their hatred of peace. The civilized world must remain vigilant and committed to a long and critical struggle -- until Americans and people around the world can lead their lives free from fear of terrorism.


The United States and its partners are attacking the leadership and infrastructure of terrorist networks at home and abroad. We are on the offensive, denying access to safe havens, funding, material support, and freedom of movement. Our efforts, and those of our allies, have disrupted terrorist plots and incapacitated terrorist leadership.

Defeating Terrorist Leadership and Personnel. Terrorist leaders provide overall direction for their campaigns of terror. While the loss of leadership forces some groups to collapse, others promote new leadership, while still others decentralize, making our challenge even greater.

  • Of the senior al-Qaida leaders, operational managers, and key facilitators the U.S. government has been tracking, nearly two-thirds have been taken into custody or killed. Counterterrorist activities against al-Qaida leaders have weakened that leadership and diminished the group’s ability to plan and carry out attacks.
  • These efforts against senior al-Qaida leaders, including Khalid Shaykh Muhammad, the 9/11 mastermind, and Muhammad Atef, Usama Bin Ladin’s second in command until his death in late 2001, have left gaping holes that the organization has yet to fill. Just as significant, with the help of allied nations, we have been able to disrupt terrorism facilitators - movers of money, people, messages, and supplies - who have acted as the glue binding the global al- Qaida network together.

International Operations, Arrests, and Investigations

  • Pakistan has taken into custody more than 500 extremists, including al-Qaida and Taliban members. These include senior al-Qaida operational leader Khalid Shaykh Muhammad, September 11 conspirator Ramzi bin al Shibh, and USS Cole plotter Khallad Ba’Attash.
  • Our counterterrorism cooperation with Saudi Arabia has significantly increased. Joint counterterrorist components have been established, information is being shared more broadly than before, and Saudi security forces have put several al-Qaida ring leaders and facilitators out of action, many of whom were involved in the May attacks in Riyadh, and arrested scores of other terrorists. Two of the most prominent terrorists include Yusif Saleh Fahd Allyari, who was killed on June 1, and Abu Bakr al-‘Azdi who was taken into custody on June 26.
  • In Asia, the August 2003 capture of terrorist chief Hambali (aka Riduan bin Isomuddin) – a known killer who was a close associate of Khalid Shaykh Muhammad – has further disrupted terrorist leadership. Hambali is a lethal terrorist who is suspected of backing major operations, including the attack in Bali, Indonesia, and other recent attacks.
  • Jordan continues its strong counterterrorism efforts, arresting two individuals with links to al-Qaida who admitted responsibility for the October 2002 murder of USAID Foreign Service Officer Lawrence Foley in Amman. They are very active against our terrorist foes.
  • In June 2002, Morocco took into custody al-Qaida operatives plotting to attack U.S. and NATO ships in the Strait of Gibraltar. They, too, are making great efforts against this common enemy.
  • The United States and Southeast Asian allies have made significant advances against the regional terrorist organization Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), which was responsible for the Bali attack last October that killed more than 200 people. In early August 2003, an Indonesian court convicted and sentenced to death a key JI figure in that bombing. Cambodian authorities shut down an organization whose employees were providing support to JI. Early this year Singapore passed a general law outlawing support to terrorists; this law was partially aimed at JI, but applies to any organization wishing to use Singapore as a base to plot acts of terror.
  • Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and others in Southeast Asia took into custody terrorist leaders and operatives from local al-Qaida-affiliated terrorist groups or al- Qaida members traveling through their countries.
  • France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, and other European nations disrupted al-Qaida cells and are vigorously pursuing other terrorist leads.

Domestic Operations, Arrests, and Investigations

  • Using authorities provided by the USA PATRIOT Act, the Department of Justice, working with other departments and agencies, has conducted its largest investigation in history, thwarting potential terrorist activity throughout the United States.
  • Since September 11, 2001, the Department of Justice has charged over 260 individuals uncovered in the course of terrorist investigations, and convicted or secured guilty pleas from over 140 individuals, including “shoe bomber” Richard Reid, who was sentenced to life imprisonment for attempting to destroy American Airlines Flight 63.
  • The U.S. government has disrupted terrorist cells in Buffalo, Seattle, Detroit, and North Carolina, and alleged terrorist cells in Portland and Tampa.
    • In Buffalo, six U.S. citizens recently pled guilty to providing material support to al- Qaida and admitted to training in al-Qaida-run camps in Afghanistan.
    • In Seattle, Earnest James Ujaama pleaded guilty to providing material support to the Taliban.
    • In Portland, seven individuals were charged with engaging in a conspiracy to join al- Qaida and Taliban forces fighting against the coalition in Afghanistan.
    • Two individuals in Detroit were convicted of conspiring to support Islamic extremists plotting attacks in the United States, Jordan, and Turkey.
    • In North Carolina, members of a cell who provided material support to Hizballah were convicted, with the lead defendant sentenced to 155 years in prison.
    • In Tampa, Florida, eight individuals were indicted for their alleged support of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ).
    • In Northern Virginia, 11 men were indicted for conspiring to violate the Neutrality Act and firearm laws based on their participation in military-style training in the United States and travel by several of the defendants to Lashkar-e-Taiba (LET) camps in Pakistan in preparation for conducting violent jihad in Kashmir and elsewhere.
    • In two narco-terrorism cases in San Diego and Houston, a number of individuals have been charged in connection with plots to trade weapons for drugs.

Denying Terrorist Haven and Sponsorship. We are working to deny terrorists the support and sanctuary that enable them to exist, gain strength, and plan and prepare for operations.

  • During Operation ENDURING FREEDOM, the United States built a worldwide coalition of 70 countries that dismantled the repressive Taliban regime and denied al-Qaida a safe haven in Afghanistan.
    • In July 2003, our forces began Operation WARRIOR SWEEP along with elements of the Afghan National Army. We detained around 100 enemy fighters and captured a cache of some 25 tons of explosives.
    • In August and September 2003, our forces combined with Afghan militia forces to conduct Operation MOUNTAIN VIPER, which drove Taliban forces out of their remote mountain hideaways and out of Afghanistan, killing upwards of 200.
  • Iraq is now the central front for the war on terror. Through Operation IRAQI FREEDOM, the United States and its coalition partners defeated Saddam Hussein’s regime, effectively eliminating a state sponsor of terrorism and a regime that possessed and had used weapons of mass destruction (WMD). While members of the old regime and foreign terrorists are trying to reclaim Iraq for tyranny, we are taking offensive action against enemies of freedom in the Iraqi theater. Specific counterterrorism successes include:
    • Eliminating Iraq as a sanctuary for the Abu Musab al-Zarqawi network, which helped to establish a poison and explosives training camp in northeastern Iraq. Associates in the al-Zarqawi network also used Baghdad as a base of operations to coordinate the movement of people, money and supplies. Al-Zarqawi has a longstanding relationship with senior al-Qaida leaders and appears to hold a position of trust with al-Qaida.
    • Shutting down the Salman Pak training camp where members of many terrorist groups trained.
    • Killing or capturing to date 42 of the 55 most wanted criminals of the Saddam regime, including Saddam’s sons Uday and Qusay.

Eradicating Sources of Terrorist Financing. The United States continues to work with friends and allies to disrupt the financing of terrorism by identifying and blocking the sources of funding, freezing the assets of terrorists and those who support them, denying terrorists access to the international financial system, protecting legitimate charities from being abused by terrorists, and preventing the movement of assets through alternative financial networks.

  • On September 23, 2001, President Bush signed Executive Order 13224, freezing the U.S.- based assets of individuals and organizations involved with terrorism, and authorizing the Secretaries of State and Treasury to identify, designate, and freeze the U.S-based assets of terrorists and their supporters.
  • Since September 11, 2001, 209 of the 212 countries and jurisdictions in the world have expressed their support for the financial war on terror; 173 countries have issued orders to freeze the assets of terrorists; terror networks have lost access to nearly $200 million, which have been frozen or seized in more than 1,400 terrorist-related accounts around the world; of that total, over $73 million has been seized or frozen due to the efforts of the United States. Over 100 countries have introduced new terrorist-related legislation, and 84 countries have established Financial Intelligence Units.
  • U.S. authorities have issued blocking orders on the assets of more than 300 terrorist organizations and terrorist supporters, effectively denying them access to the U.S. financial system. The arrests of key financial facilitators and fundraisers have resulted in a significant decline in monetary contributions to terrorist organizations.
  • The United States welcomes the September 6, 2003, political decision of European Union Foreign Ministers to designate the leadership and institutions of HAMAS as a terrorist organization and to freeze their financial assets.
  • Since September 28, 2001, all 191 UN Member States have submitted first-round reports to the United Nations Security Council Counterterrorism Committee on actions they have taken to suppress international terrorism, including blocking terrorist finances, as required under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373.
  • On November 7, 2002, the Treasury Department issued voluntary best practices guidelines for all U.S.-based charities to address concerns that charitable distribution of funds abroad might reach terrorist-related entities and thereby trigger a blocking action on the part of the Treasury Department.
  • The FBI has aggressively pursued groups, individuals, and networks that provide financing for terrorism worldwide. The FBI uncovered facts showing that the Benevolence International Foundation (BIF) and Global Relief Foundation (GRF), Islamic charities holding themselves out to be conduits for directing aid to the poor and needy of the Islamic world, were actually conduits for funding Islamic fighters engaged in battle throughout the world, including Chechnya. BIF and GRF have been designated as global terrorist entities, and their international organizations have been successfully disrupted and dismantled.


While the United States and our allies continue direct actions against terrorists and their infrastructures abroad, we are simultaneously strengthening the security of the homeland. The President signed significant new legislation that has advanced the war on terror, expanded our intelligence and law enforcement capabilities, bolstered transportation security, stockpiled vaccines, provided equipment and training for first responders, and reorganized the Federal government to address today’s security challenges.

Since September 11, 2001, the President has signed numerous critical pieces of legislation into law, including:

  • Homeland Security Act of 2002
  • USA PATRIOT Act of 2001
  • Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001
  • Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002
  • Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002
  • Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002

These laws, combined with the redirection of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) into an agency focused on preventing terrorism and the redoubling of efforts at the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to improve the nation's preparedness for identifying and responding to bioterrorism, have reorganized the institutions of the Federal government and provided significant resources in our arsenal to fight terrorism. To continue meeting the new threats of the 21st Century, the 2004 budget includes $41 billion to continue homeland efforts -- more than doubling 2002 funding.

Reorganizing the Federal Government

The Department of Homeland Security

  • On November 25, 2002, the President signed the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The Act established a cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and transferred to it 22 existing Federal entities dedicated to preventing, mitigating, and responding to terrorist attacks on the United States. To execute the Act, the Administration undertook the most extensive reorganization of the government in the past 50 years to ensure that the United States would have one Department with the primary mission of protecting the American homeland.
  • The Department is securing our borders, transportation systems, ports, and critical infrastructure; analyzing intelligence; augmenting the response capabilities of states and local governments; and conducting research to develop the next generation of terrorism countermeasures.

Intelligence and Information Sharing

  • At the President’s direction, the Director of Central Intelligence, the Director of the FBI, and the Secretaries of Defense and Homeland Security, working with the Attorney General and the Secretary of State, established the Terrorist Threat Integration Center (TTIC) to integrate and analyze terrorism threat-related information collected domestically and abroad. TTIC focuses on “connecting-the-dots,” and since becoming operational on May 1, 2003, has issued hundreds of terrorist threat-related products. TTIC has over 100 officers drawn from partner agencies, a number expected to grow to several hundred by this time next year. Also at the President’s direction, key elements of the CIA’s Counterterrorist Center (CTC) and the FBI’s Counterterrorism Division (CTD) will co-locate with TTIC in 2004 to enable still greater coordination.
  • To ensure that the Department of Homeland Security and other organizations needing
  • information related to threats to the United States promptly receive all such information, Attorney General John Ashcroft, Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge and Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in March 2003. Actions being taken under this MOU, as well as other interagency agreements and processes, are implementing a new systematic approach to interagency information sharing.
  • The CIA doubled the size of its Counterterrorist Center (CTC) and quadrupled the number of counterterrorism analysts in the wake of September 11. In particular, CTC enhanced the number of analysts dedicated to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear issues, and significantly increased the volume and scope of strategic and tactical analytic reports delivered to senior Administration officials on such topics as terrorist infrastructure and capabilities, network analysis, and terrorist profiles. CTC’s cooperation with foreign intelligence services on counterterrorism issues also has risen sharply.

Law Enforcement

  • One of the most significant law enforcement tools in the war on terrorism is the USA PATRIOT Act. Passed in Congress by an overwhelming majority, the Act has strengthened our ability to prevent, investigate, and prosecute acts of terror by providing enhanced tools to detect and disrupt terrorist cells. The Act removed major legal barriers that had hampered coordination between the law enforcement, intelligence, and national defense communities in their efforts to protect the American people. Now police officers, FBI agents, Federal prosecutors and intelligence officials, while working within the safeguards of our Constitution, can better protect our communities by uncovering terrorist plots before they are carried out. The Act also updated the law to accommodate new technology and new threats, allowing us to fight a digital-age battle with modern tools. Many of the tools the Act provides to law enforcement to fight terrorism have been used for decades to fight organized crime and drug dealers, and have been reviewed and approved repeatedly by our courts.
  • Under the leadership of the Attorney General, the FBI is being transformed into an agency dedicated to the prevention of terrorism, while remaining committed to other important national security and law enforcement responsibilities.
    • Under the revised Attorney General’s Investigative Guidelines and other reforms, the FBI has increased its analytic capabilities, improved law enforcement coordination, increased information sharing, and overhauled its information technology systems.
    • The Attorney General established the National Joint Terrorism Task Force at FBI Headquarters and expanded to 66 fully operational Joint Terrorism Task Forces. There is a JTTF in each of the 56 field offices, as well as a growing number in FBI’s smaller Resident Agencies. These interagency organizations focus exclusively on terrorism, bringing together personnel, intelligence, and capabilities from Federal, state, and local law enforcement, DHS, the Intelligence Community, and other Federal agencies.
    • The FBI has centralized its own activities for intelligence gathering and analysis and, for the first time, created a 24-hour counterterrorism watch office to serve as the focal point for all incoming terrorist threat information. The watch office quickly distributes information to appropriate elements in law enforcement and the Intelligence Community.
    • The FBI’s Legal Attache (Legat) Program, with over 45 offices around the world, greatly enhances the capability of the United States to wage the war against terrorism and addresses the full range of criminal threats to the United States in an increasingly globalized world. In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks and throughout the following year, FBI Legats facilitated the rapid deployment of approximately 700 FBI personnel overseas to investigate terrorist attacks against the United States and allied interests.
    • At the President’s direction, the Department of Justice (DOJ) established the Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force (FTTTF), as one step in Federal agencies’ efforts to identify potential terrorists attempting to enter or remain in the United States. Managed by the FBI with participation from DHS, DOD, and other government agencies, analysis conducted by the FTTTF has resulted in over 300 referrals made to law enforcement or Intelligence Community agencies.
  • Under the direction of the Attorney General, the U.S. Attorneys have constituted and led Anti-Terrorism Task Forces (ATTF) in each of their respective districts, coordinating numerous anti-terrorism initiatives, information sharing programs and training sessions, and forging unprecedented levels of outreach and cooperation with state and local law enforcement.

Analysis and Warning

  • The Department of Homeland Security disseminates information regarding the risk of terrorist attacks to Federal, state, and local authorities, to include the public and private sectors. Further, information regarding the risk of terrorist attacks, including such information prepared by DHS, is distributed to all FBI Joint Terrorism Task Forces through the FBI’s National Joint Terrorism Task Force.
  • The Information Analysis (IA) division of the Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection (IAIP) directorate of DHS is doing unprecedented work in assessing the nature and scope of terrorist threats to the homeland. Some of the Department’s work in this area is carried out in part by IA analysts who are full partners and participants in the President’s Terrorist Threat Integration Center (TTIC) initiative, and physically located at TTIC. Other threat analysis is carried out by IAIP analysts located at Headquarters, in close coordination with TTIC. IAIP also will provide full intelligence support to all elements of DHS, including conducting its own independent analysis of threats to the homeland, and “red teaming,” in which DHS analysts try to anticipate potential attacks by thinking like the terrorists. DHS relies upon the analysis produced by IA, to help determine priorities for protective and support measures and provide information to Federal, state, and local government agencies and authorities, and private sector entities.
  • The multi-agency partners in TTIC integrate and analyze terrorist threat-related information, collected domestically and abroad, to form a comprehensive threat picture, and disseminate such information to recipients who take preventive action.
  • Since September 11, 2001, the FBI has received and assessed the credibility of approximately 3,600 threats to the United States. The National Threats Warning System has issued 62 threat warnings, 55 Be On the Lookout (BOLO) alerts, and 82 Intelligence Bulletins. These warnings are disseminated to more than 18,000 state and local law enforcement agencies in the United States, over 60 Federal agencies and subcomponents, and all U.S. Attorneys.


  • To strengthen the effectiveness of U.S. military forces engaged in homeland security, the President authorized the establishment of U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM). It began operations on October 1, 2002, and will be fully operational by October 2003. USNORTHCOM eliminates gaps among the different military organizations that currently have homeland defense responsibilities and strengthens military support to civilian agencies.

Reducing America’s Vulnerability to Terrorism. DHS is maintaining America’s open land, sea and air borders, facilitating the legitimate flow of commerce and people, while at the same time detecting and interdicting terrorists and their weapons before they enter the United States. The Administration is also strengthening our critical infrastructure protection efforts by coordinating the activities of Federal agencies responsible for infrastructure protection and combining information from the Intelligence Community, Federal, state, and local law enforcement, and the private sector to map threats to critical infrastructure against known vulnerabilities.

Operation Liberty Shield

  • The Department of Homeland Security, in conjunction with numerous departments and agencies of the Federal government, implemented “Operation LIBERTY SHIELD” to increase protective measures during a period of heightened alert in March 2003. This comprehensive national plan to protect the homeland increased security at our borders, strengthened transportation sector protections, enhanced security at critical infrastructure, increased public health preparedness and ensured that all Federal response assets could be rapidly deployed. It built the foundation for our country’s critical infrastructure protection programs.

Border Security

Document Security

  • The Department of State has developed new tamper-resistant visas, extended the application review process, enhanced the visa lookout system, and improved information sharing among U.S. law enforcement agencies and the Intelligence Community. In 2003, visa screening requirements were tightened, requiring face-to-face interviews for almost all applicants.
  • The Department of State has developed the Terrorist Interdiction Program (TIP) to assist nations at high risk of terrorist transit by providing them with a computer database system that enables border control officials to quickly identify people attempting to enter or leave the country. TIP is now in 12 nations and will expand to 18 by the end of 2003.

Tracking, Monitoring, and Interdiction

  • In December 2001, the United States and Canada signed the Smart Border Declaration, which included 30 action items for increasing security, enhancing joint law enforcement, improving physical and technological infrastructure, and facilitating the trade and movement of people between the two countries. The U.S.-Mexican Border Partnership, signed in March 2002, contains a similar 22-point action plan.
  • Strong cooperation between the United States, Canada, and Mexico has resulted in several programs that will enable the Department of Homeland Security to focus its security efforts and inspections on high-risk commerce and travelers: Free and Secure Trade Initiative (FAST), the U.S.-Canada NEXUS program, and the Secure Electronic Network for Traveler Rapid Inspection (SENTRI).
  • DHS is operating the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS), which tracks foreign students who come to the United States, ensuring they are actually enrolled and attending classes, while facilitating the entry of legitimate students.
  • The U.S. Visitor and Immigrant Status Indication Technology system (U.S. VISIT) is designed to make entering the United States easier for legitimate tourists, students, and business travelers, while making it more difficult to enter the United States illegally through the implementation of biometrically authenticated documents. The system will utilize biometric identifiers -- a photograph and fingerprints -- to build an electronic checkin/ check-out system for people coming to the United States to work, study, or visit. The U.S. VISIT system will replace the current NSEERS program, integrate the SEVIS program, and accomplish the requirements for an automated entry/exit system. The system will scan travel documents to enable inspectors to check against databases to determine whether the individual should be detained or questioned further. U.S. VISIT will begin its first phase of operation at international air and sea ports of entry by the end of 2003.
  • Approximately 10,000 Border Patrol Agents are now patrolling our borders. By January 2004, some 1,000 will be assigned to the Canadian border, an increase of more than 50 percent over the past 12 months.

Port Security

  • Enhancing our security measures abroad, the DHS Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (BCBP) launched the Container Security Initiative (CSI), establishing tough new procedures to target high-risk cargo before it is loaded on containers headed for U.S. ports. As of August 2003, 19 of the world’s major ports, handling two-thirds of cargo containers destined for the United States, have agreed to participate in CSI. There are plans to expand the initiative to 27 additional high volume ports in strategic locations throughout the world.
  • Operation Safe Commerce (OSC) is a public-private partnership to fund new initiatives designed to enhance tracking and security for container cargo moving through the international transportation system to the United States. OSC helps facilitate the efficient movement of legitimate commerce.
  • DHS now requires electronic advance cargo manifests from sea carriers 24 hours prior to loading in a foreign port to give officials more time to check for potentially dangerous cargo.
  • Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) technology inspects shipping containers determined to be high risk by the U.S. Automated Targeting System (ATS). Sophisticated large-scale radiation detection portals and hand-held technologies substantially increase the likelihood that nuclear or radiological materials and weapons will be detected.
  • Since September 11, the Coast Guard has made the largest commitment to port security operations since World War II, including over 124,000 port security patrols and 13,300 air patrols. The Coast Guard boarded more than 92,000 high interest vessels, interdicted over 9,473 individuals attempting to enter the United States illegally, and created and maintained more than 94 Maritime Security Zones.
  • In implementing the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, the Coast Guard will require ports, vessels, and facilities to perform security assessments, develop plans, and address security deficiencies. Both domestic regulations and international requirements oblige all nations to develop and implement port and ship security plans by July 1, 2004.

Aviation Security

  • There are some 48,000 newly trained Federal screeners deployed at our nation’s airports, where new baggage inspection equipment helped the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) institute 100 percent checked baggage screening. All airport personnel must now undergo background checks.
  • DHS and the Department of State suspended the Transit without Visa program (TWOV) and the International-to-International transit program (ITI), eliminating terrorists’ ability to exploit these programs to gain access to U.S.-bound aircraft or the United States.
  • The Federal Air Marshal program was expanded so that thousands of protective air marshals are now flying on commercial aircraft.
  • All large commercial passenger aircraft flying within or to the United States now have hardened cockpit doors to help prevent their hostile takeover. Armed pilots who have received Federal training can also defend their aircraft.
  • DHS and other agencies are working with foreign countries, airports, and local and Federal law enforcement agencies to prevent the proliferation of shoulder-launched missiles that can be used against commercial aircraft. DHS is conducting vulnerability assessments at key U.S. airports.

Critical Infrastructure Protection

  • “Critical infrastructure protection” refers to efforts to enhance the security of physical and cyber-based systems and assets that are essential to national security, national economic security, or public health and safety. Protective actions include a wide range of activities designed to reduce the vulnerability of critical infrastructures in order to deter, neutralize or mitigate terrorist attacks.
  • DHS meets with industry on a regular basis to share information, lessons learned, and best practices. DHS has been working with the economic and industrial sectors to develop a range of vulnerability assessment tools to meet their unique security challenges and needs. The security plans factor in the identified vulnerabilities to create a community-based approach to enhancing the security of critical infrastructure. Recent efforts include the following:
    • DHS has recently begun a comprehensive training program that involves chemical facility operators, site security managers, and local law enforcement personnel. The training takes those who would be involved in the prevention of a terrorist attack at a facility and ensures everyone understands its vulnerabilities, risks, and protective measures. The training uses realistic terrorist threat information, and has resulted in a public/private team better equipped to prevent terrorists from using our chemical facilities as a tool to attack Americans.
    • The U.S. chemical industry has worked in partnership with the Department of Homeland Security and others to evaluate vulnerabilities and put enhanced measures in place to ensure the safety of its facilities and neighboring communities.
    • DHS has developed reports on common vulnerabilities to critical infrastructures, reports on indicators of terrorist activities in or around facilities, and security plan templates for use by local and state law enforcement personnel, as well as the private sector. The Department is beginning a national effort to provide technical assistance with the implementation of tailored security plans based on these documents.
  • The Department recently created a Soft Targets Unit with the Protective Security Division to assist state and local law enforcement in reducing vulnerabilities to attack in shopping malls, entertainment venues, sports stadiums, and other public gathering areas.
  • Passage of the Safe Explosives Act of 2002 strengthened the ability of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives’ (ATF) to prevent the acquisition of explosive materials by terrorists and others who would misuse them. Among other things, it expanded the Federal explosives permitting requirement to ensure that all persons who acquire explosives have been subjected to a background check and issued an ATF permit.
  • The Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection (IAIP) division of DHS established a Critical Infrastructure Information Program Office to handle voluntarily submitted information about threats and vulnerabilities. IAIP released draft regulations for implementing the Critical Infrastructure Information Act this spring and is now developing the final guidelines.

Cyberspace Security

  • In June 2003, DHS created the National Cyber Security Division (NCSD) as a focal point for the Federal government’s interaction with state and local government, the private sector, and the international community concerning cyberspace vulnerability reduction efforts.
  • A central element of the NCSD is the Cyber Security Tracking Analysis and Response Center, which examines cyber security incidents and coordinates efforts to mitigate damage.
  • During the recent rash of internet worms and viruses, the NCSD played a central role in coordinating national response efforts. NCSD rapidly convened technical experts from government, industry, and academia to analyze and develop guidance that they promptly shared with Federal, state and local governments, infrastructure operators, and individual computer users.
  • Through the FedCIRC (Federal Computer Incident Response Center) program, NCSD also provided extensive guidance and assistance to Federal agencies during these virus and worm events. This aid significantly reduced the impact of these events on government systems.

Enhancing Detection, Response, and Recovery from Biological and Chemical Terrorism

  • The Administration has bolstered the nation’s defense against an attack with a biological or chemical weapon through several parallel and complementary efforts. DHS, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and other agencies are focused on detection, response, and research and development.
  • The Administration has directed approximately $2.5 billion to state and local public health agencies, hospitals, and other health care entities since September 11, 2001, to improve planning, implement rapid secure communications, increase laboratory capacity, and upgrade the capacity to detect, diagnose, investigate and respond to a terrorist attack with a biological agent, and provide clinical care and treatments for those affected.
  • As part of his proposed Project BioShield, the President has requested $5.6 billion to accelerate the development and acquisition of next-generation vaccines and other products to counter bioterror threats. Project BioShield will accelerate the National Institute of Health’s (NIH) research and development of countermeasures, permit the FDA to make promising treatments quickly available during emergencies, and allow the U.S. government to purchase needed countermeasures as soon as they become available.
  • The National Institute of Health’s (NIH) civilian biodefense research budget has been increased from around $100 million prior to September 11, 2001, to $1.5 billion in 2003. The President has proposed an additional $1.6 billion for 2004. The NIH’s investment focuses on new drugs and vaccines, and diagnostics for high threat agents such as anthrax, smallpox, Ebola, and others.
  • DHS’s BioWatch program has placed detectors in over 30 cities, providing the capability to detect a variety of biological agents of concern. Samples from these detectors are tested in Federally supported local laboratories and provide results within 12-36 hours.
  • The Strategic National Stockpile was enlarged to 12 pre-positioned 50-ton packages of drugs, vaccines, medical supplies, and equipment that stand ready for immediate deployment to anywhere in the United States within 12 hours. In the last year, the stockpile has been expanded to treat 12 million persons exposed to anthrax, and to treat injuries following a chemical attack.
  • The Department of Defense has immunized over 490,000 soldiers and support personnel against smallpox. Though the Administration does not currently recommend smallpox vaccinations for the general public, HHS has acquired enough smallpox vaccine to immunize every person in the United States, if needed, following a smallpox attack and has begun immunizing health care personnel who would administer the vaccine.

Agriculture and Food Security

  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) increased the number of food safety inspectors by 655, doubling its capacity to conduct safety inspections of our food systems.
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) increased personnel at borders by 50 percent over FY 2000 levels to enhance efforts to keep foreign agricultural pests and diseases from entering the United States. The number of ports of entry with FDA staffing has increased from 40 to 90.
  • The USDA and HHS issued complementary regulations establishing new safeguards for the control of select agents that could pose a threat, in accordance with the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002.
  • The National Animal Health Laboratory Network and the National Plant Diagnostic Laboratory Network were developed with land-grant universities and state veterinary diagnostic laboratories around the country to create plant and animal health laboratory networks that have increased our capability to respond in an emergency.
  • The food regulatory agencies, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), have evaluated over 35 different domestic and imported food and product categories for vulnerabilities to terrorist attack. The Administration is evaluating and implementing plans and new technologies to protect against potential attacks to the food supply.

Enhancing Emergency Preparedness and Response Capabilities. Despite our best efforts at preventing future attacks, terrorism will continue to be a threat, and we must always be prepared to respond to an attack. We are better prepared to minimize the damage and recover from any future terrorist attacks by equipping and training our first responders and public health personnel.

First Responders

  • The U.S. government provided $7.9 billion in grants between 2002 and 2003 to help state and local responders, public health agencies, and emergency managers prepare for terrorist attacks. The President’s 2004 Budget request included an additional $5.2 billion to ensure first responders and public health and medical personnel are properly trained and equipped Progress Report on the Global War on Terrorism 16 to respond to terrorism. This includes funds to purchase protective gear for working in hazardous environments and devices for detecting and disarming explosives and other dangerous materials.
  • Departments and agencies throughout the government have taken actions to increase preparedness by providing first responders with training and exercise opportunities. Since September 2001, approximately 346,000 responders have been certified on basic preparedness concepts.
  • At the Federal level, a recent weapons of mass destruction exercise entitled TOPOFF2, involved two major U.S. cities (Chicago and Seattle), as well as major response elements within the U.S. government up to the cabinet level, and portions of the Canadian government. This exercise provided an opportunity for analysis of the abilities of Federal, state, and local response mechanisms to respond to a complex terrorist attack. In August 2003, the Department of Defense conducted a multi-level exercise to test USNORTHCOM’s ability to respond to multiple, simultaneous homeland security and Federal relief events.
  • During FY 2003, DHS provided assistance to upgrade the number of Urban Search and Rescue teams capable of addressing weapons of mass destruction (WMD) from 6 to 28.
  • More than 700 Citizen Corps Councils have been formed in communities, states, and territories to better prepare communities to meet the threats of terrorism, crime, public health issues, and other disasters. Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) training is now available in 417 localities in 46 states and one U.S. territory.

National Response Plan

  • The Department of Homeland Security is creating a fully integrated national emergency response system that can adapt to any terrorist attack or natural disaster. They are also consolidating Federal response plans and building a national system for incident management.
  • The National Response Plan is being developed, under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, to coordinate and integrate all Federal domestic incident prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery plans.
  • The President directed the development of a National Incident Management System (NIMS) to make Federal, state, and local entities interoperable during incidents. Development of the NIMS will involve consultation with state and local organizations, the private sector, and other Federal agencies.


Success in the global war against terrorism depends on the actions of a powerful coalition of nations maintaining a united front against terror. Over 170 nations continue to participate in the war on terrorism by taking terrorists into custody, freezing terrorist assets and providing military forces and other support. International organizations are becoming more agile, adapting their structures to meet changing threats. We support the actions of our partners as they facilitate international, regional, and local solutions to the challenge of terrorism.

Global Efforts to Fight Terrorism

  • On September 11, 2001, only two nations had adhered to all 12 international anti-terrorism conventions and protocols. Now more than 30 nations belong to all 12, and many more have become parties to most of the conventions and protocols and have passed implementing legislation to put them into effect.
  • The United Nations Security Council, through its Counterterrorism Committee (CTC), has taken on a new, important role under Resolution 1373 as the coordinator of UN member states in efforts to raise the global level of counterterrorism capability, cooperation and effectiveness.
  • On June 26, 2002, President Bush secured agreement on a U.S.-sponsored plan for G-8 action on transport security. The G-8 committed to accelerated action on pre-screening people and cargo, increasing security on ships, planes and trucks, and enhancing security in airports and seaports. The G-8 initiative also enhances transport security through better intelligence, coordinated national efforts, and international cooperation against terrorist threats.
  • At the 2003 G-8 Summit in Evian, leaders established a Counterterrorism Action Group (CTAG) of donor countries to expand and coordinate training and assistance for countries with the will, but not the capacity, to combat terror, focusing on critical areas such as terrorist financing, customs and immigration controls, illegal arms trafficking, and police and law enforcement.
  • On June 2, 2003, President Bush agreed with other G-8 Leaders at the Evian Summit to a series of controls on Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), surface-to-air missile systems designed to be carried and fired by individuals, which are a major threat to civil aviation. Additionally, the Department of State is working to strengthen the 2000 Wassenaar Arrangement guidelines on these shoulder-launched missile systems and is providing bilateral assistance to help eliminate at-risk stockpiles and improve security of national inventories of these weapons.
  • The G-8 Leaders took significant steps to expand international cooperation on projects to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the first year of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction launched by leaders in June 2002. The Partnership has been broadened to include Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland. The G-8 also launched an initiative to improve the security of radioactive sources and prevent their use by terrorists in so-called “dirty bombs.”
  • On May 31, 2003, the President announced the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), designed to combat the trade in weapons of mass destruction, their delivery systems, and related materials to and from states and non-state actors of proliferation concern. This proliferation, together with terrorism, constitutes the greatest threat to international security. On September 4, 2003, Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom joined the United States in announcing the PSI Statement of Interdiction Principles, consistent with national legal authorities and international law and frameworks.
  • The International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Nuclear Security Action Plan provides advice, training and equipment to its 136 Member States to combat nuclear terrorism. The United States has contributed $15.9 million since the Action Plan’s inception in March 2002. The IAEA coordinates its nuclear security activities with the United States and other donor states to mutually reinforce our nuclear security goals.
  • International arms export control regimes – Australia Group for chemical/biological weapons, Wassenaar Arrangement, Missile Technology Control Regime and Nuclear Suppliers Group – have added to their guidelines the need to prevent acquisition of controlled items by terrorists, and are in the process of adopting other measures to achieve this goal.
  • The Radiological Threat Reduction program identifies and pursues actions that can be taken to reduce the threat of a radiological attack against the United States. Working with the International Atomic Energy Agency, this program aims to assist countries that are technically or financially unable to secure high-risk orphan or surplus sources.
  • The Department of Defense established the Regional Defense Counterterrorism Fellowship Program, funded at $20 million per year, to provide coalition counterparts with the training and education necessary to establish and maintain effective counterterrorism programs in their home countries.
  • The Department of State’s Foreign Military Financing (FMF) program, which focuses on military professionalism and the equipping of often beleaguered armed forces throughout the world, is providing a direct infusion of badly needed resources used to combat terrorism.

Regional Efforts to Fight Terrorism

  • On June 26, 2003, the President announced a $100 million Eastern Africa Counterterrorism Initiative to expand and accelerate counterterrorism efforts with Kenya, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Uganda, Tanzania and other countries, as appropriate.
  • On October 26, 2002, President Bush obtained agreement for an Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders plan on Fighting Terrorism and Promoting Growth that contains specific commitments to secure key Pacific Rim infrastructure – transport, finance, and communications – from exploitation or attack by terrorists.
  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has endorsed an ambitious transformation agenda designed to enhance its capabilities by increasing deployment speed and agility to address new threats of terrorism. Other organizations, including the Organization of American States (OAS), the European Union (EU), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Australia, New Zealand, and United States (ANZUS) Treaty members, the APEC forum and others, took concrete steps to combat terrorism more effectively and to cooperate with each other in the fight.
  • The Department of State initiated a Counterterrorism and Law Enforcement Joint Working Group with Pakistan and greatly enhanced counterterrorism cooperation with India, Japan and China. It has also launched an intensive training program for Pakistan counterterrorism units in Crisis Response Team and investigation techniques.
  • Colombia has developed a democratic security strategy as a blueprint for waging an aggressive campaign against designated foreign terrorist organizations (FTO) such as FARC, ELN, AUC and other illegal armed groups. U.S. Congressional passage of new authorities for Colombia, in July 2002, enhanced the flexibility of U.S. security assistance against illicit drugs and terrorism. We are now noting an elevated rate of desertion from Colombian FTO ranks, and the AUC declared a ceasefire in December 2002. In July, the AUC and Government of Colombia agreed to formal peace talks.
  • Last year Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and the United States established a regional counterterrorism mechanism to focus on practical steps to strengthen financial and border controls, legislation, and enhance law enforcement and intelligence sharing. The mechanism is built on the framework of the “Tripartite Commission of the Triple Frontier,” creating the “3+1” format.
  • The Department of State has strengthened its counterterrorism cooperation with Russia through the bilateral Counterterrorism Working Group, which has held regular sessions in the United States and Russia, dealing with terrorism issues over most of the world.
  • Using a combination of diplomatic encouragement and operational support (including our Georgia Train and Equip military assistance program), the United States supported Georgia’s successful efforts against terrorists in the Pankisi Gorge. These efforts led to arrests of suspects wanted for terrorist actions in Russia and Western Europe.

Diminishing the Underlying Conditions Terrorists Exploit

Many terrorist organizations exploit to their advantage conditions of poverty, social disenfranchisement, unresolved political and regional disputes, and weak state structures. The United States has embarked on a number of initiatives designed to foster broad-based economic growth and development, open societies to global trade and investment, and promote the health and education of people worldwide. As more countries become active participants in the global economy and offer their people the benefits of good governance, economic opportunities, and health and education, terrorists will be denied both recruits and safe havens.

Global and Regional

  • Based on Presidential direction, the United States developed and began implementation of the Middle East Roadmap to encourage progress towards a long-term resolution to the Arab- Israeli dispute.
  • This spring, the President launched the Middle East Initiative, which contains a number of economic and trade actions, including a proposed Middle East Free Trade Agreement, to reduce economic disparities that fuel discontent, anti-American violence and terrorism.
  • In February 2002, and again in September 2002, President Bush committed additional U.S. assistance to Pakistani President Musharraf. This included $2 million in democracy assistance for technical support, including training of election commissioners, observers and political party monitors for the October 2002 Legislative Elections; a multi-year $100 million educational support program; Department of Labor grants to combat child labor and provide vocational training; initiation of discussions on expanded cooperation in science and technology; and creation of a Joint Economic Forum to expand cooperation. During President Musharraf’s June 2003 Camp David meeting, President Bush announced the Administration would work with Congress to provide Pakistan with a comprehensive $3 billion five-year assistance package to bolster Pakistan’s counterterrorism capabilities and alleviate poverty conditions on which terrorists strive.
  • In March 2002, the President launched the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) initiative, a 50 percent increase in official U.S. development assistance over three years, and a challenge to donors worldwide to increase the effectiveness of their foreign aid. The MCA will channel its funds only to developing countries that demonstrate a strong commitment to ruling justly, investing in their people, and encouraging economic freedom. The focus of this assistance is to significantly increase the sustained long-term growth rates of recipient countries and create models of stability and progress throughout the developing world.
  • In December 2002, the Secretary of State inaugurated the Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI), which is comprised of programs to encourage democratic growth in societies that have been denied it, economic freedom to foster growth and reduce hopelessness and despair, and high quality, inclusive education to train youth for a global economy.
  • In 2002, the United States launched the Trade for African Development and Enterprise (TRADE) initiative, a multi-year capacity building initiative that will promote regional integration and cooperation, as well as the Africa Education Initiative to increase access to quality basic education opportunities on the continent.
  • United States continues to provide assistance to the countries of the Andes through the Andean Regional Initiative, which focuses on building stability and democracy in the region and providing economic alternatives to illegal drug trafficking and narco-terrorism.


  • The United States led the world in providing humanitarian assistance and reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan. In FY 2002 and 2003, the United States provided over $900 million annually in aid to Afghanistan. The U.S. Congress passed the Afghanistan Freedom Support Act, which authorizes $3.47 billion for Afghanistan over fiscal years 2003-2006. In conjunction with U.S. combat operations to root out remnants of al-Qaida and Taliban terrorists, the President has announced a doubling of U.S. assistance to Afghanistan to over $2 billion this year. The Afghans are in the final stages of producing that country’s first constitution in nearly 40 years. We are working hard with the Government of Afghanistan to raise additional funds from friendly countries and to provide conditions supportive of national elections in 2004.
  • More than 403,000 metric tons of food have been delivered since operations in Afghanistan began. The United States is assisting in the repair of more than 4,000 km of roads, reconstruction of 28 bridges, and rehabilitation of over 6,000 water wells, canals, dams and water systems. We rebuilt 72 clinics and hospitals as part of a 3-year $133 million health program and rehabilitated 200 schools. In 2002, over three million students went back to school (33 percent girls), double the number previously enrolled. The U.S. government has provided $10 million to rebuild the national radio network.
  • The United States is the lead nation for establishing, training, and equipping the new Afghan National Army, committing over $400 million to this endeavor, and will provide similar amounts over the next several years. The United States is funding a facility to train police, judges and prosecutors in modern criminal justice principles and human rights.


In addition to destroying terrorists, our strategy in Iraq – the central front for the war on terror – includes helping Iraqis assume responsibility for their own defense and future.

  • In the short period of time since April 9, the day the Governing Council of Iraq declared to be their new independence day, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) has made progress in the areas of security and political development.
  • Judicial systems are beginning to function, recruiting for the New Iraqi Army has begun, and uncensored radio, TV and print media are proliferating for the first time in decades.
  • Currently, one police academy is operating in Baghdad and two others are being repaired and staffed. Approximately 46,000 Iraqi police are being rehired nationally, and 250 have completed the Transition and Integration Program. In addition, a civil defense force, facilities protection service, and Iraqi border guards will be involved in defending the security of their own nation.
  • Universities and primary schools have reopened. CPA is creating a program to employ 300,000 Iraqis in public sector jobs. Local political infrastructures are beginning to emerge and some small businesses are bustling.
  • Over 2,500 tons of pharmaceuticals have been delivered since May 1, 2003, with distribution throughout the country. Thousands of tons of food are flowing into Iraq weekly, and extensive projects are underway to increase water supplies and improve sewer systems.


The Administration is aggressively implementing the objectives of the President’s National Strategy for Homeland Security and National Strategy for Combating Terrorism, rooting out terrorism abroad, forming international coalitions, equipping first responders with additional tools, enhancing intelligence capabilities, cutting off terrorist financing, securing our borders and transportation systems, enhancing response capabilities, developing medical countermeasures, and adding protective measures for critical infrastructure. All Federal agencies are integrating their efforts better than ever before and coordinating with state, local, and private entities to prevent future terrorist attacks on American soil.

International and domestic efforts have led to the removal of terrorist leaders and personnel and the disruption of numerous plots. Iraq and Afghanistan no longer provide state-sponsored or government-supported sanctuary and training grounds for terrorist groups. Initiatives by the United States have provided good governance, health and education, and given more countries the opportunity to be active participants in the global economy, strengthening states that terrorists might otherwise seek to exploit.

The United States is working aggressively with its regional and international partners to combat terrorism. The threat is global, and the United States is coordinating its response by building alliances, increasing capacity, and reducing vulnerabilities.

The United States and its allies have made great progress in the Global War on Terrorism, but we must maintain our dedication and vigilance. While many terrorists have been brought to justice, others are plotting to attack us. We will remain on the offensive, preemptively stopping terrorists seeking to do harm against the United States, its citizens and partners, and creating an international environment that is inhospitable to terrorists and all those who support them. Victory against terrorism will occur through the sustained efforts of a global coalition dedicated to ridding the world of those who seek to destroy our freedom and way of life.

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